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WHAT HAPPENED TO THE ALGAL BIOFUEL ENVIRONMENTALISM HYPE????

THE ASSESSMENT BY LABROOTS:

LINK: https://www.labroots.com/trending/chemistry-and-physics/14258/algae-biofuel-what-happened-hype

During the first decade of the 21st century, the world saw a rapid surge of research and development activities surrounding algae biofuel. The concept, which combines biological carbon capture and accelerated fossil fuel creation in its essence, has the environment-friendly appears.and advantages over the production of fossil fuel and energy source from other types of biomass. After dozens of organizations spending hundreds of millions of dollars-worth investment, a significant portion of which came from Exxon Mobile and the Department of Energy, the bubble burst as no one managed to achieve a commercial scale process. The idea of extracting fuel oil from algae was since considered neither commercially viable nor environmentally responsible. The boom started when algae were discovered to be much more efficient in capturing carbon and turn them into biofuel, as compared to terrestrial plants such as palms and corns. Algae do not require good quality land, so using algae as a source for biodiesel can alleviate the competition with food crops. The genetically diverse, lipid-rich watery plant is not picky about water either: wastewater from farming, contaminated with fertilizers can be used as its primary source of water and nutrients. Since many algae species are excellent bio-fixers, meaning the production process of algae biofuel can be a carbon-negative process, even though about a good percentage of the carbon will be released back to the atmosphere during fuel consumption. But the byproducts and scrap from algae can be easily buried as composting. Later on, as more R&D was carried out, it turns out that growing algae in the industrial scale would require about the same footage of land if not ocean as other traditional fuel crops. It was calculated that an algae pond would need to suck around 4g of carbon from the atmosphere and transformed that into biomass per square meter (or 11 square feet) every day, in order to sustain fuel production and extraction. From the biochemistry point of view, the amount of fertilizer that the growth of algae would need in an industrial setting is also astounding and may result in unhealthy competition with the need for food crop farming. Some of the biofuel startups survived the burst, but they all switched gears to focus turning algae into other high-value products such as cooking oil, dietary supplement, and food coloring products. Meanwhile, algae biofuels research and development is still alive, with a smaller amount of funding dedicated to plausibly breakthroughs, in both biology and engineering. For instance, chemical engineers from the University of Utah reported a new, energy-efficient method to extract lipids from the watery plant: they developed a new mixing reactor in which jets of the extraction solvent run against jets of algae, creating turbulence that “suck out” liquid from algae with ease. As many are hopeful that more innovation will put us closer to turning algae into a viable, cost-effective alternative fuel, it is important to bear in mind that any breakthrough in industrial technology takes time, money, and careful, lengthy R&D.

THE ASSSESSMENT BY GREENTECH MEDIA

LINK: https://www.greentechmedia.com/articles/read/lessons-from-the-great-algae-biofuel-bubble

From 2005 to 2012, dozens of companies managed to extract hundreds of millions in cash from VCs in hopes of ultimately extracting fuel oil from algae. CEOs, entrepreneurs and investors were making huge claims about the promise of algae-based biofuels; the U.S. Department of Energy was also making big bets through its bioenergy technologies office; industry advocates claimed that commercial algae fuels were within near-term reach. Jim Lane of Biofuels Digest authored what was possibly history’s least accurate market forecast, projecting that algal biofuel capacity would reach 1 billion gallons by 2014. In 2009, Solazyme promised competitively priced fuel from algae by 2012. Algenol planned to make 100 million gallons of ethanol annually in Mexico’s Sonoran Desert by the end of 2009 and 1 billion gallons by the end of 2012 at a production rate of 10,000 gallons per acre. PetroSun looked to develop an algae farm network of 1,100 acres of saltwater ponds that could produce 4.4 million gallons of algal oil and 110 million pounds of biomass per year. Nothing close to 1 billion (or even 1 million) gallons has yet been achieved — nor has competitive pricing. The promise of algae is tantalizing. Some algal species contain up to 40 percent lipids by weight, a figure that could be boosted further through selective breeding and genetic modification. That basic lipid can be converted into diesel, synthetic petroleum, butanol or industrial chemicals. According to some sources, an acre of algae could yield 5,000 to 10,000 gallons of oil a year, making algae far more productive than soy (50 gallons per acre), rapeseed (110 to 145 gallons), jatropha (175 gallons), palm (650 gallons), or cellulosic ethanol from poplars (2,700 gallons). The question is: Can algae be economically cultivated and commercially scaled to make a material contribution to humanity’s liquid fuel needs? Can biofuels from algae compete on price with fossil-derived petroleum? Once capital needs, water availability, energy balance, growing, collecting, drying, and algae’s pickiness about light and CO2 are factored in — the answer, so far, is an emphatic no. There is incredible potential for algae technology in drug discovery and production, specialty oils and a range of chemicals. Will we be running commercial engines on algae-derived fuels in the 21st century? Nope.

THE ASSESSMENT BY THE CONVERSATION

LINK: https://theconversation.com/can-we-save-the-algae-biofuel-industry-58518

Algal biofuels are in trouble. This alternative fuel source could help reduce overall carbon emissions without taking land from food production, like many crop-based biofuels do. But several major companies including Shell and ExxonMobil are seemingly abandoning their investments in this environmentally friendly fuel. So why has this promising technology failed to deliver, and what could be done to save it? Algae are photosynthetic organisms related to plants that grow in water and produce energy from carbon dioxide and sunlight. Single-celled microalgae can be used to produce large amounts of fat, which can be converted into biodiesel, the most common form of biofuel. There are many possible ingredients for making biofuels, from corn to used cooking oil. But algae are particularly interesting because they can be grown rapidly and produce large amounts of fuel relative to the resources used to grow them (high productivity). In the last decade or so, vast amounts of money have been invested in the development of algae for biofuel production. This made sense because, ten years ago, there was a need to find alternatives to fossil fuels due to the high oil price and the increasing recognition that carbon emissions were causing climate change. Algal biofuels were touted as the answer to these twin problems, and huge investment followed. Unfortunately, things didn’t go quite to plan. Companies making algal biofuels struggled to retain their high productivity at a larger scale and found predators often contaminated their farms. They also found that the economics just didn’t make sense. Building the ponds in which to grow the algae and providing enough light and nutrients for them to grow proved too expensive, and to make matters worse the oil price has plummeted. But algae don’t just produce biofuels. In fact, algae are like microscopic factories producing all sorts of useful compounds that can be used to make an amazingly diverse range of products. This means that the “biorefinery” concept can bring the algae revolution back as a new wave of the algae revolution.

Algae Biofuel Could Power Airplanes

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

THE ALGAL BIOFUEL MOVEMENT OF ENVIRONMENTALISTS THAT WAS PROPOSED AS A SOLUTION TO ANTHROOPOGENIC GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE HAS FAILED BECAUSE OF HIDDEN COMPLEXITIES AND COSTS NOT TAKEN INTO CONSIDERATION IN ITS INITIAL EVALUATION. A THOROUGH ANALYSIS OF THE ISSUE IS PROVIDED IN THE BOOK “THE MYTH OF ALGAE BUIFUELS” AND SUMARIZED IN THE HARVARD POLITICAL REVIEW LINK: https://harvardpolitics.com/the-myth-of-algae-biofuels/ WHERE WE FIND:

The Myth of Algae Biofuels: The algae that has received the most attention is microalgae, single-celled photosynthetic organisms that live on the water’s surface. Microalgae are one of the most abundant and important organisms on the planet. They play a significant role in balancing marine ecosystems and regulating global nutrient cycles. To transform these tiny plants into fuel, researchers typically grow microalgae in large, open ponds. Scientists harvest the algae, break down the plants’ cell walls using a chemical solvent, and then extract their inner lipids, proteins, and carbs, which undergo a final processing step that turns them into biofuel. But energy companies have long since given up on algae biofuels. Despite industry optimism, decades of research seem to have converged upon a disappointing reality: The economic and biological limitations of algae make it an unrealistic fuel alternative to fossil fuels.

1 Introduction | Sustainable Development of Algal Biofuels in the United  States | The National Academies Press

Space Tourism Is Getting Closer. Here's How Much It Will Cost. | Barron's

THIS POST IS A CRITICAL REVIEW OF A SPACE.COM ARTICLE ON HOW SPACE TRAVEL AFFECTS GLOBAL WARMING AND OZONE DEPLETION.

LINK TO SOURCE: https://www.space.com/environmental-impact-space-tourism-flights

PART-1: WHAT THE SPACE.COM ARTICLE SAYS

The rise of space tourism could affect Earth’s climate in unforeseen ways. Are the effects of rocket launches on the atmosphere really negligible? Hybrid rocket motors such as those used in Virgin Galactic’s rocket planes emit a lot of soot. Scientists worry that growing numbers of rocket flights and the rise of space tourism could harm Earth’s atmosphere and contribute to climate change. When Richard Branson and Jeff Bezos soared into space in suborbital tourism vehicles, much of the world clapped in awe but for some scientists, these milestones represented something other than technical accomplishment. The flights marked the potential beginning of a long-awaited era that might see rockets fly through the so-far rather pristine upper layers of the atmosphere far more often than they do today. These flights are powered by a hybrid engine that burns rubber and leaves behind a cloud of soot. Hybrid engines can use different types of fuels, but they always generate a lot of soot, These engines work like a candle, and their burning process creates conditions that are favorable for soot generation. A single Virgin Galactic suborbital space tourism flight, lasting about an hour and a half, can generate as much pollution as a 10-hour trans-Atlantic flight. Even if the suborbital tourism market is launching at a fraction of the number of launches compared to the rest of the tourism industry, each of their flights has a much higher contribution, and that could be a problem. Galactic’s rockets are not the only culprits. All rocket motors burning hydrocarbon fuels generate soot. Solid rocket engines, such as those used in the past burn metallic compounds and emit aluminum oxide particles together with hydrochloric acid, both of which have a damaging effect on the atmosphere. The engine that powers Blue Origin’s New Shepard suborbital vehicle combines liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen to create thrust and is not a big polluter compared to other rocket engines. Rockets pollute the otherwise pristine upper layers of the atmosphere. but too little is known about this issue. The problem is that rockets pollute the higher layers of the atmosphere, the stratosphere, which starts at an altitude of about 6.2 miles and the mesosphere, which goes upward from 31 miles. We are emitting pollutants in places where we don’t normally emit it. We need to understand if we increase these things, what is the potential damage? So far, the impact of rocket launches on the atmosphere has been negligible. but that’s simply because there have not been that many launches. The amount of fuel currently burned by the space industry is less than 1% of the fuel burned by aviation so there has not been a lot of research but things are changing in a way that suggests that we should learn about this in more detail. It is anticipated that space tourism flights will skyrocket over the next decade, from around10 a year to maybe 360 a year. Demand for suborbital tourism is extremely high, these companies have customers waiting in a line, and so they want to scale up. Ultimately, they would want to fly multiple times a day. The problem is that the scientific community has no idea and not enough data to tell at what point rocket launches will start having a measurable effect on the planet’s climate. At the same time, the stratosphere is already changing as the number of rocket launches sneakily grows. The impacts of these [rocket-generated] particles are not well understood even to an order of magnitude, the factor of 10.The uncertainty is large, and we need to narrow that down and predict how space might be impacting the atmosphere. NASA’s space shuttle generates ozone-damaging substances and created the space shuttle’s ozone holes. So far, the only direct measurements of the effects of rocket launches on atmospheric chemistry come from the space shuttle era. In the 1990s the U.S. Air Force looked at the effects of the emissions from the space shuttle’s solid fuel boosters on ozone in the stratosphere with significant concerns about chlorine from solid rocket motors. Chlorine is the bad guy to ozone in the stratosphere, and there were some models which suggested that ozone depletion from solid rocket motors would be very significant. One of the fundamental questions was how much chlorine is being made in these solid rocket motors and in what form. They measured it and then analyzed the results. At that time, there were not enough space shuttle launches to make a difference globally, but locally one could deplete the ozone layer due to this diffuse plume. The space shuttle retired 10 years ago, but rockets generating ozone-damaging substances continue launching humans and satellites to space today. In 2018, in its latest Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion, the WMO included rockets as a potential future concern and called for more research. Rocket planes inject pollutants into very high altitudes. The effects of human-made substances in the higher layers of the atmosphere contains large uncertainties. The work is akin to predicting the proverbial butterfly effect, the influence of minuscule changes in the chemistry of the air tens of miles above Earth on climate and weather patterns on the ground. But black carbon, or soot, emitted by rockets burning hydrocarbon fuels, is of particular concern. “The problem with soot is that it absorbs ultraviolet light, and that means that it could heat the stratosphere. and that could actually affect what is happening on the ground. Many of the particles generated by rockets have been of interest to scientists due to the possible effects they could have on the global climate in a different context — that of geoengineering, the deliberate tampering with the atmosphere with the aim of stopping or mitigating global warming. The team was interested in the climate effects of dispersing sulfur dioxide particles, which are known to reflect light away from Earth, in combination with soot in the lower stratosphere. Soot absorbs energy from sunlight and pushes the sulfur dioxide aerosol particles to a higher altitude by warming up the surrounding air. At that higher altitude, the sulfur dioxide can start its climate-cooling work. The experiment modeled what would happen when 1.1 million tons of sunlight-reflecting sulfur dioxide mixed with 11,000 tons of black carbon were released in the upper troposphere by aircraft over a 10-day period. The study didn’t find any significant negative effects on weather on Earth. The soot particles generated by hybrid rocket engines are extremely small and light-weight. In fact, when he and his colleagues tried to measure the soot output of hybrid rocket engines in a laboratory, they couldn’t reliably do it with precision because of the particles’ minuscule size. We were able to measure the particle output from solid rocket motors. These are about a micron in size. Because they are large, they fall to the ground more quickly. In hybrid rocket engines, we were not able to collect the soot from the plume because it’s extremely fine, a few nanometres in size.These particles could stay in the stratosphere forever. They have the same size as the carbon emitted by aircraft and we know that there is a layer of carbon in the atmosphere at the flight level of aircrafts which is staying there. Particles coming from rocket motors may do the same.The accumulation of these particles over years and decades is what worries the scientists. Just as the current climate crisis started relatively slowly as the amount of carbon released into the atmosphere grew, the pollution in the stratosphere may only start causing harm some years down the road. In the long term, injecting pollutants into the stratosphere could alter the polar jet stream, change winter storm patterns or affect average rainfall. BUT THERE IS A LOT OF WORK TO BE DONE IN THIS AREA OF RESEARCH. Therefore it is critical that we start now to evaluate the future risks. THERE IS THIS FUNDAMENTAL GAP WHERE WE DON’T HAVE THE NUMBERS. THE SCIENCE IS LIMITED BY LACK OF INFORMATION. YET IT IS OUR RESPONSIBILITY TO TO ASSESS TO ASSESS THE IMPACT OF HUMAN ACTIVITY ON THE STRATOSPHERE. We need a bigger research program that would analyze the emissions and impacts of individual types of rocket engines and fuels on the stratosphere. The U.S. Congress seems to be aware of the problem and things might soon start to move.We need a national program run to develop a database with emission data for modern rocket propulsion systems.

PART-2: CRITICAL COMMENTARY

#1: The issue proposed here is that rocketry pollutes the stratosphere with both gases and particulates and that this pollution raises environmental issues with respect to anthropogenic global warming and ozone depletion and these issues imply that the proposed space tourism services of the rocketry industry imply significant impacts on the climate change and ozone depletion crises of our time.

#2: This assesment is made with the admission by the scientists that they don’t really have the data to make such assessments but that the possible dangers posed by rocketry that have been identified by the scientists make it imperative that there should be a well funded government program for these scientists to study this issue.

#3: The scientists have determined that the real danger in these rocketry emissions into the stratisphere is how little the scientists actually know and that the less the scientists know the more dangerous it gets because the more imaginative the climate change and ozone depletion impacts become.

#4: Here we present a related post on the ozone issue: LINK: https://tambonthongchai.com/2020/12/27/the-hole-in-the-sky/ where we find a long and failed history of scientists speculating that air and space travel in the stratosphere will cause ozone depletion and climate change. This list is reproduced below.

However, a more significant issue in the theory of human caused ozone depletion is detailed in the related post linked above. It is that (1) no evidence is found in the data of long term decline in global mean total column ozone and (2) the periodic, short term, and localized changes in ozone concentration above the south pole that is called an ozone hole is neither a hole nor evidence that supports the theory of anthropogenic ozone depletion by way of the Rowland Molina theory of ozone depletion.

The science checklist applied: CFCs and the destruction of the ozone layer
ROWLAND AND MOLINA

Long and failed history of ozone depletion and climate change speculation

  1. 1969: A plan to develop high altitude supersonic airliners with the Boeing 2707 as a concept vehicle. The very high cruising altitude of the SST raised environmental alarms that included both climate change and ozone depletion. First an alarm is raised that chemicals and aerosols in the exhaust of the SST jet engines will cause climate change.
  2. 1970 the climate change theory is quietly shelved after critical reviews by skeptics and deniers and a new alarm is raised. Water vapor in the SST jet exhaust will cause a 4% depletion of ozone in the ozone layer causing 40,000 additional cases of skin cancer every year in the USA alone. The water vapor theory is quietly forgotten after critical reviews by skeptics and deniers with data showing that higher levels of water in the stratosphere is coincident with higher levels of ozone.
  3. 1970: A new ozone depletion theory emerges. Nitric oxide (NOx) in the SST jet exhaust will cause ozone depletion because NOx acts as a catalyst to destroy ozone without being consumed in the process.
  4. 1971: A computer model is developed to assess the impact of NOx in SST exhaust on the ozone layer. The model predicts that there will be a 50% ozone depletion and a worldwide epidemic of skin cancer. Animals that venture out during daylight will become blinded by UV radiation. It was an apocalyptic scenario.
  5. 1971: NOx in the fireball of open air nuclear tests provide a ready laboratory to test the ozone depletion properties of NOx. The computer model predicted 10% ozone depletion by NOx from nuclear testing. Measurements showed no ozone depletion; but the model won and the ozone depletion scare endured.
  6. 1972: Death of the SST: We were so frightened by the ozone depletion scare that the SST program was canceled although America’s skies soon became filled with supersonic fighters and bombers spewing NOx without any evidence of ozone depletion or of skin cancer or of blindness in animals.
  7. 1973: Space Shuttle: Unperturbed by the skeptics and emboldened by their SST success, fear mongering ozone depletion scientists turned their attention to the proposed Space Shuttle program. The shuttle design included two solid fuel rockets that emit hydrogen chloride (HCl). The scientists calculated that 50 flights per year would deposit 5000 tons of HCl per year in the stratosphere that could cause a 10% ozone depletion over Florida and 1% to 2% elsewhere. Although the scare was hyped it never got to the SST levels and the space shuttle miraculously survived the ozone scare.

Space Shuttle Program | National Geographic

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

THE COMMONLY PROPOSED LOGIC BY ENVIRONMENTAL AND CLIMATE CHANGE SCIENTISTS THAT THE LESS THEY KNOW THE SCARIER IT GETS IS NOT CREDIBLE AND AS DESCRIBED IN THE RELATED POST LINKED BELOW, IT VIOLATES FUNDAMENTAL STATISTICAL PRINCIPLES IN HYPOTHESIS TESTING. THESE ARE (1) A HYPOTHESIS DERIVED FROM THE DATA CANNOT BE TESTED WITH THE SAME DATA, AND (2) IN HYPOTHESIS TESTS, THE NULL HYPOTHESIS MUST BE THE NEGATION OF THE RESEARCHER’S HYPOTHESIS WITH THAT HYPOTHESIS PRESENTED AS THE ALTERNATE AND NOT THE NULL.

LINK: https://tambonthongchai.com/2021/05/01/the-fear-of-ignorance-derives-from-the-null-hypothesis-issue-in-climate-science/

IN YET ANOTHER RELATED POST WE PROVIDE A LIST OF STATISTICAL ERRORS SEEN IN ACTIVISM DRIVEN RESEARCH WHERE UNBIASED AND OBJECTIVE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH IS CORRUPTED BY THE ACTIVISM NEEDS OF THE RESEARCHER.

LINK: https://tambonthongchai.com/2021/05/18/climate-science-vs-statistics/

WHAT THE SCIENTISTS ARE TELLING US IN THE ARTICLE ON THE DANGERS OF SPACE TRAVEL IS THAT THEY DON’T REALLY KNOW AND THEY DON’T HAVE THE DATA BUT THEIR SPECULATION IMPLIES SIGNIFICANT DANGERS OF SPACE TRAVEL IN TERMS OF BOTH CLIMATE CHANGE AND OZONE DEPLETION. HOWEVER, THE REAL INFORMATION HERE IS THAT THEY DON’T KNOW AND THAT THEIR SPECULATION IS JUST THAT – SPECULATION.

A FURTHER INTERPRETATON OF THE SPECULATIONS PRESENTED ABOVE IS THAT THE SCIENTISTS ARE SEEKING A SIGNIFICANT GOVERNMENT FUNDED RESEARCH PROGRAM IN WHICH THEY WOULD PRESUMABLY PARTICIPATE. THE SPECUALATIVE FEAR APPEAL ARGUMENTS MAY HAVE AN INTERPRETTION IN TERMS OF MOTIVATING AND MAXIMIZING SUCH TAXPAYER FUNDING.

POSTSCRIPT

ENVIRONMENTALISM IS THE NEW RELIGION *** GLOBAL IMPACT OF HUMAN ACTIVITY IS THE NEW ENVIRONMENTALISM *** THE OZONE DEPLETION AND CLIMATE CHANGE ISSUES ARE JUST THE BEGINNING OF THIS NEW PHASE OF THE ENVIRONMENTALISM RELIGIOUS MOVEMENT. ***

LINK: https://tambonthongchai.com/2021/10/11/anthropogenic-global-warming-in-a-post-modern-world/

Michael Hanlon quote: Global warming, indeed much of environmentalism, has  become a new...

10/17/2021: THIS POST IS A LIST OF RECENT EXCHANGES ON QUORA WITH REGARD TO CLIMATE CHANGE

Climate anxiety: Survey for BBC Newsround shows children losing sleep over  climate change and the environment - CBBC Newsround

RELATED POST ON CLIMATE CHANGE ANXIETY:

LINK: https://tambonthongchai.com/2020/10/10/climate-anxiety/

#1: QUESTION: HOW DOES CLIMATE AFFECT CULTURE?

ANSWER: ABOUT 8,000 YEARS AGO OR SO, GLOBAL WARMING CREATED HUMAN CIVILIZATION.

LINK: https://tambonthongchai.com/2021/06/27/modern-humans-climate-change/

#2: QUESTION: CAN WE SAFELY SAY THAT THE AGE OF PETROLEUM IS OVER?

ANSWER: IN THE DOCUMENT LINKED BELOW IS A CHART SHOWING A RISING LONG TERM TREND IN RENEWABLE ENERGY CAPACITY WORLDWIDE. BELOW THAT IS A CHART SHOWING RISING GLOBAL FOSSIL FUEL EMISSIONS OVER THE SAME PERIOD OF TIME. ONLY WHEN THE LONG TERM TREND IN FOSSIL FUEL EMISSIONS IS HEADED DOWNWARD AND APPROACHING ZERO CAN WE SPECULATE THAT THE AGE OF FOSSIL FUELS IS COMING TO AN END.

LINK: https://tambonthongchai.com/2021/02/23/renewable-energy-statistics/

#3: QUESTION: WHAT IS THE GREATEST THREAT TO MANKIND IN THE ENVIRONMENT?

ANSWER: THE GREATEST THREAT TO MANKIND IN THE ENVRONMENT IS THE ENVIRONMENT OF FEAR CREATED BY THE CLIMATE MOVEMENT THAT IN TURN HAS CREATED AN OBSESSION OF MANKIND WITH FINDING THINGS TO FEAR.

LINK: https://tambonthongchai.com/2021/05/27/unnatural-humans/

#4: QUESTION: HOW CONCERNED ARE YOU ABOUT FUTURE JET STREAMS CREATING CONDITIONS THAT WOULD DECIMATE THE GLOBAL FOOD SUPPLY?

ANSWER: STRANGE HOW CLIMATE FEAR-MONGERING HAS TURNED OUR LIVES INTO A HORROR MOVIE AND GAVE US THIS OBSESSION WITH IMAGINING AND THEN ANTICIPATING HORRORS OF EVERY DESCRIPTION.

LINK: https://tambonthongchai.com/2021/08/25/gaia-vs-climate-change/

#5: QUESTION: WHO’S TO BLAME FOR THE BUSH FIRES THAT HAVE DEVASTATED AUSTRALIA?

ANSWER: THAT ALL NATURAL DISASTERS ARE NOW SOME KIND OF BLAME GAME IS THE REAL CLIMATE CHANGE CATASTROPHE WHERE ONCE INTELLIGENT AND RATIONAL HUMANS HAVE TURNED INTO SUPERSTITIOUS CLIMATE CHANGE GOOFBALLS.

LINK: https://tambonthongchai.com/2018/08/03/confirmationbias/

#6: QUESTION: WHAT CAUSES TYPHOONS IN THE PHILIPPINES? IS IT BECAUSE OF GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE?

ANSWER: TYPHOONS ARE TROPICAL CYCLONES AND TROPICAL CYCLONES NATURALLY OCCUR IN SIX AREAS OF THE WORLD KNOWN AS CYCLONE BASINS. ONE OF THESE CYCLONE BASINS IS THE WEST PACIFIC BASIN WHERE TROPICAL CYCLONES ARE CALLED TYPHOONS AND AS IT TURNS OUT, THE WEST PACIFIC BASIN IS THE MOST ACTIVE CYCLONE BASIN IN THE WORLD – ALWAYS HAS BEEN.

LINK: https://tambonthongchai.com/2019/04/04/1737/

Is it too late (to stop dangerous climate change)? An editorial - Hulme -  2020 - WIREs Climate Change - Wiley Online Library
Facing the Climate Emergency: How to Transform Yourself with Climate Truth:  Klein Salamon, Margaret, Gage, Molly, Klein Salamon, Margaret:  9780865719415: Amazon.com: Books
Climate anxiety is real, but there's something you can do about it | CNN

PART-1: WHAT THE UK ENVIRONMENT AGENCY SAYS


Hundreds of people could die in floods in the UK. The country is not ready for the impact of climate change. Earlier this year in Germany, dozens of people died in floods and (“therefore”) that will happen in the UK. sooner or later unless the UK becomes resilient. The bottom line for the UK in the climate change issue is this: adapt or die. Global warming effects such as higher sea levels and more extremes of rainfall and drought requires the country’s readiness to cope with climate change impacts. The UK Environment department will take measures to protct the UK from climate change impacts. We are currently heading for an increase in the global average temperature of just under 3C by the end of the century but even a smaller rise of 2C would have severe consequences: Winter rainfall up by 6% by the 2050s and 8% by the 2080s, Summer rainfall down by about 15% by the 2050s, London’s sea level up by 23cm by the 2050s and 45cm by the 2080s, peak river flows up 27% and summer flows down by 82% that will increase demand for water supply by 3.4 billion litres per day. To successfully tackle the climate emergency the UK must implement effective adaptation measures. To avoid Germany’s flood catastrophe, the UK must build flood defences. The UK must adapt to increasing weather extremes. As for COP26, Governments around the world must promise more ambitious cuts in warming gases if we are to prevent global temperature rise. The summit in Glasgow is where this change could happen. The question is whether promises made by the big polluters like the USA and China will be kept. Climate change will change our lives and impact our jobs, how we heat our homes, what we eat and how we travel. In addition, the UK needs to restore natural systems that absorb carbon dioxide and hold back rainwater. If the UK gets it right their citizens will be safer and more prosperous. The UK must invest in flood protection and coastal defences like the Thames Barrier to avoid the flood tragedy of 1953. COP26: The COP26 climate summit is important. Questions with no answers: What will climate change look like for you?, Will the UK meet it’s climate targets?, How extreme weather is linked to climate change? The UK needs better technology for warning communities about food risk and with better coordination among emergncy services. Billions of pounds have been spent on flood defences – and that more is earmarked. As the host of COP26, the UK is highlighting the importance of helping communities and nature to adapt to climate change. £5.2bn has been budgeted to protect 336,000 propertis from flooding and £640m has been budgeted to tackle climate change and adaptation together. The UK is taking robust action to increase resilience to climate change as a climate change adaptation policy and using the COP26 presidency to promote climate adaptation strategies around the world.

Priority Themes for Climate Change Adaptation

PART-2: CRITICAL COMMENTARY

THE ISSUE AND SUBJECT MATTER OF COPS IN GENERAL AND COP26 IN PARTICULAR IS STRICTLY CLIMATE ACTION. TO FORMULATE AND TO IMPLEMENT A CLIMATE ACTION PLAN ON A GLOBAL SCALE IN THE IMAGE OF THE MONTREAL PROTOCOL – THE SO CALLED “MONTREAL PROTOCOL FOR THE CLIMATE. (MPFC).

BUT WHAT WE SEE IN UK CLIMATE HEROISM AS HOST OF COP26 AND ON THE EVE OF COP26 IS THAT THE UK IS FOCUSSED ENTIRELY ON ADAPTATION. IT SHOULD BE MENTIONED THAT CLIMATE ADAPTATION STRATEGIES ARE NECESSARY ONLY IF AND WHEN CLIMATE ACTION HAS BEEN ABANDONED.

PERHAPS THE UK IS WISER THAN THE REST SUCH THAT IN THE CONTEXT OF THE LOGIC THAT THE REASON WE NEED THE GLASGOW COP26 IN THE YEAR 2021 IS THAT THE 25 PREVIOUS COPS HELD SINCE 1995 HAVE ALL FAILED. EVEN THE SO CALLED “PARIS AGREEMENT” THAT HAD BEEN PRESENTED TO US AS A SUCCESS IS NOW REVEALED TO BE A FAILURE SIMPLY BECAUSE THE NEED FOR COP26 REVEALS THE UGLY TRUTH THAT ALL THE PREVIOUS COPS HAVE FAILED. AND INDEED THEY HAVE.

AND THE UK KNOWS THAT WELL. AND THEY HAVE CHOSEN THE RATIONAL OPTION AS IN “SINCE WE KNOW THAT COP CLIMATE ACTIONS DON’T WORK AND SINCE WE WANT TO PROTECT OUR CITIZENS, OUR CLIMATE CHANGE STRATEGY HAS TO BE ONE OF ADAPTATION.

BRAVO!!!!

ESSENTIALLY, ENGLAND HAS GIVEN THE FINGER TO THE UN AND ITS COPS.

OTHER GLORIOUS MOMENTS IN ENGLAND’S HISTORY

SIR TIMOTHY JOHN BERNERS-LEE

RELATED POST ON COPS: LINK: https://tambonthongchai.com/2021/08/21/cop26-glasgow-2021/

COP26 at the SEC in Glasgow — BIG HIT

POSTSCRIPT:

MEANWHILE IN SWEDEN,

Greta Thunberg wants climate action success at COP26. She wants world leaders to honestly admit that their action is not living up to their words.

COPs secure pledges from member countries

but COPs have no way of enforcing those pledges

so what do the pledges mean?

A crude translation of Greta’s observation about the COP program of the United Nations {in the blogger’s crude language} is that it is a fucking joke.

The decision by the UK to give up on COPs and focus on adaptation is consistent with this assessment of the COP program for global climate action and with the long history of 25 COPs consisting of 25 faiures and zero successes.

For reasons unknown and unfathomable, this charade continues with great aplomb and fanfare.

RELATED POST ON COPS: LINK: https://tambonthongchai.com/2021/08/21/cop26-glasgow-2021/

LINK TO THE GRETA ARTICLE: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/climate-change/greta-seeks-honesty-from-world-leaders-at-cop-26-79666

Greta Thunberg interview

RELATED POSTS:

LINK#1: THE GEOLOGY OF HAWAII: https://tambonthongchai.com/2020/04/08/hawaiianhotspot/

LINK#2: GEOLOGICAL CARBON FLOWS#3: https://tambonthongchai.com/2021/04/25/geological-carbon-flows-part-3/

LINK#3: GEOLOGICAL CARBON FLOWS#2: https://tambonthongchai.com/2021/01/20/offshore-hydrocarbon-seeps/

LINK#4: GEOLOGIC AL CARBON FLOWS#1 https://tambonthongchai.com/2019/08/27/carbonflows/https://www.youtube.com/embed/hmMlspNoZMs?version=3&rel=1&showsearch=0&showinfo=1&iv_load_policy=1&fs=1&hl=en&autohide=2&wmode=transparent

THE CLIMATE CHANGE ISSUE:

THIS POST IS A PRESENTATION OF SOURCES OF CARBON TRANSFERS FROM THE MANTLE TO THE SURFACE BY WAY OF SEEPAGE, HYDROTHERMAL VENTS, HYDROTHERMAL PLUMES, SUBMARINE VOLCANISM, AND ASSOCATED GEOLOGICAL ACTIVITY. THE CONTEXT OF THIS STUDY IS THE THEORY OF ANTHROPOGENIC GLOBAL WARMING (AGW) WHERE FOSSIL FUEL EMISSIONS ARE ASSUMED TO BE THE SOLE SOURCE OF CARBON EXTERNAL TO THE CARBON CYCLE. A further argument in climate science for human cause is that the source of the carbon causing atmospheric CO2 to rise has to be fossil fuels because this carbon is devoid  of the 14C and 13C isotopes. It is noted that this argument does not exclude geological carbon because that carbon is also devoid of 13C and 14C isotopes. It is not possible to distinguish fossil fuel carbon from geological carbon. It is proposed therefore that natural flows of CO2 to the atmosphere that may have been missed or underestimated in climate science must be reconsidered, specifically the known carbon flows from the mantle to the atmosphere.

LINK: https://www.wired.com/story/a-huge-subterranean-tree-is-moving-magma-to-earths-surface/

PART-1: WHAT THE SOURCE DOCUMENT SAYS

A Huge Subterranean ‘Tree’ Is Moving Magma to Earth’s Surface
Deep in the mantle, a branching plume of intensely hot material appears to be the engine powering vast volcanic activity
.

Reunion, A French island in the western Indian Ocean, is like a marshmallow hovering above the business end of a blowtorch. It sits above one of Earth’s mantle plumes—a tower of superheated rock that ascends from the deep mantle and flambées the bases of tectonic plates, the jigsaw pieces that make up the ever-changing face of the world. The plume’s effects are hard to miss: One of the island’s two massive volcanoes, the aptly named Piton de la Fournaise, or “Peak of the Furnace,” is one of the most hyperactive volcanoes on the planet. But the plume’s modern-day punch is nothing compared to its past. Original story reprinted with permission from Quanta Magazine, an editorially independent publication of the Simons Foundation whose mission is to enhance public understanding of science by covering research develop­ments and trends in mathe­matics and the physical and life sciences. Around 65 million years ago, when the plume was under what is now India, a series of lava floods named the Deccan Traps smothered 1.5 million square kilometers of land—enough to bury Texas, California, and Montana—in a mere 700,000 years, a geologic heartbeat. A giant asteroid strike would be the coup de grâce for the dinosaurs, but the Deccan Traps have long muddled the picture of the climatic conditions the dinosaurs had to contend with. In 2012, a team of geophysicists and seismologists set out to map the plume, deploying a giant network of seismometers across the vast depths of the Indian Ocean seafloor. Nearly a decade later, the team has revealed that the mantle is stranger than expected. The team reported in June in Nature Geoscience that the plume isn’t a simple column. Instead, a titanic mantle plume “tree” rises from the fringes of the planet’s molten heart, with superheated branchlike structures appearing to grow diagonally out of it. As these branches approach the crust, they seem to sprout smaller, vertically rising branches—super hot plumes that underlie known volcanic hot spots at the surface. The discovery of this massive structure beneath Réunion nearly coincides with another recent discovery, reported in November, that found additional structures in the plumes under Africa. Taken together, the two findings represent a significant scientific advance: They suggest that plumes can be more idiosyncratic, and can have more elaborate backstories, than traditional models presumed. The Réunion tree’s root, which researchers already knew about from prior work, is likely a primordial object, perhaps almost as old as Earth itself. So it is possible this torrid tree has been growing its canopy of plumes for billions of years. Presuming that more branches continue to grow, scientists now have a window into Earth’s fiery future. “From looking at the core-mantle boundary, you can maybe predict where the oceans will open,” said study coauthor Karin Sigloch. Researchers can also forecast the land that will one day be obliterated. If the new models are accurate, a few tens of millions of years from now, you may not want to be in South Africa—or, perhaps, on planet Earth at all. Fountains of Fire: Back in the 1960s, when the theory of plate tectonics was rapidly gaining acceptance, certain geological features seemed to evade explanation. While the theory provided explanations for questions that had long puzzled scientists—where volcanoes appear, where land is born, where ocean basins are carved out, where ancient crust was annihilated—it couldn’t explain something like Hawai‘i. Plate tectonics predicts that the boundaries of tectonic plates—where two plates collide, slide over or under one another, grind side by side, or move apart—are where most of the planet’s geologic fireworks can be found. The so-called Ring of Fire, the horseshoe-shaped region that marks the fringes of the many plates surrounding the Pacific plate, is home to 75 percent of the world’s active volcanoes. The Hawai‘i–Emperor seamount chain is a series of mostly underwater volcanoes, many dormant, that stretch more than 6,000 kilometers across the Pacific Ocean.PHOTOGRAPH: NATIONAL GEOPHYSICAL DATA CENTER/USGS But despite being nowhere near a plate boundary, Hawai‘i is an archipelago of giant volcanoes. The active submarine volcano Lō‘ihi, off the southeastern shore of the island of Hawai‘i, is the youngest member of a warped chain of volcanoes 6,000 kilometers long, one that can be traced all the way to long-expired underwater volcanoes in the northwest Pacific. This phenomenon, known as intraplate volcanism, stood out as a geologic aberration. In 1963, the Canadian geophysicist John Tuzo Wilson suggested that volcanic chains like this are forged when a tectonic plate continuously drifts over a stationary hot spot in the mantle—the scorching rock that makes up 84 percent of Earth’s volume. This creates a sequence of volcanoes that erupt, grow, then die out as the plate migrates away from the magmatic fuel source. In 1971, the American geophysicist William Jason Morgan proposed that these hot spots were caused by plumes of particularly hot material rising from the lower mantle. Over the following decades, geophysicists concluded that plumes are around 200 degrees Celsius hotter than the ambient mantle. When plumes reach the base of tectonic plates, their heat melts their surroundings, making plenty of magma. The plumes also carry mantle material up from Earth’s depths. This material melts at the lower pressures found away from the core, feeding additional magma into the crust. The combined supply of hot magma neatly explains a great number of Earth’s intraplate volcanoes.

Chains of volcanoes, also known as hot spot tracks, are difficult to explain without invoking plumes. Hawai‘i is an oceanic example, but they can be found on land, too: The Yellowstone supervolcano is the youngest member of a hot spot track dating back at least 17 million years, one that poured 210,000 cubic kilometers of lava across the Pacific Northwest before blasting out a trail of giant volcanic cauldrons from Oregon to Wyoming—the undeniable scar tissue of an unrelenting mantle plume. Heat from a mantle plume powers thermal features such as this one in Yellowstone National Park. Chemical evidence also implies the existence of mantle plumes. There are two stable types of helium: helium-3 and helium-4. Helium-3 was trapped deep within Earth during its formation and is decidedly ancient. Several hot spot volcanoes, including Hawai‘i’s Kīlauea, erupt lavas with an abundance of the stuff. That, said Godfrey Fitton, a petrologist at the University of Edinburgh, suggests that these volcanoes are mining mantle matter from considerable depth—and a plume is a reasonable explanation. No eyes have ever directly seen a plume; they are inferred to exist. But researchers have gathered considerable evidence in their favor. Seismic waves have provided revelatory validation. They emanate from earthquakes that dive through Earth’s viscera before curving back toward the surface. As these waves travel, the geologic bodies they pass through alter their speed and trajectory. Seismometers pick up this information, and scientists use the data to try and work out what is hiding within that great abyss. Seismic waves move more slowly through hot rock, and study after study has shown that they often slow down through elongate structures that rise from the deep mantle and connect with volcanic hot spots at the surface. Seismologists have also discovered two giant blobs of material—one beneath Africa, the other below the Pacific—that sit astride the boundary between the mantle and the core. Deep-diving waves decelerate as they move through both giant blobs, suggesting that they are hot colossi, together covering about 30 percent of the entire core-mantle boundary. The duo have all manner of possible origin stories, ranging from a graveyard of defunct tectonic plate slabs to the dissected corpse of Theia, the protoplanet that collided with the infant Earth and manufactured the moon. With some exceptions—Yellowstone among them—Earth’s plumes seem rooted to one of those two giant blobs, said Saskia Goes, a geophysicist at Imperial College London. This suggests they play a role in most plumes’ origin stories. The Pu‘u‘ō‘ō eruption on Hawai‘i’s Kīlauea Volcano lasted 35 years. But seismology is not omniscient. Seismic waves can detect structures within the mantle, but they cannot reveal every characteristic of those structures. “You can slow down a seismic wave by heating a material up,” said Harriet Lau, a geophysicist at the University of California, Berkeley. But a change in the rock’s mineral makeup can achieve the same effect. Scientists are forced to choose which option is more likely in each measurement they do. Seismology may be a hard science, but there is an art to it. Subcrustal structures are also equipped with camouflage. Seismic waves like to take the fast lane: They preferentially channel into colder, rigid rock. Plumes, being hot, are repulsive to seismic waves. Plumes are also thin, allowing most incoming seismic waves to dodge them with ease. The more seismic waves you have crossing through the same point in the plume, the more confident you can be that it exists. But “earthquakes don’t happen everywhere,” said Catherine Rychert, a geophysicist at the University of Southampton. And seismic stations are mostly on land, not on the seafloor, which means oceans have poor seismic coverage. “Theoretically, we know [plumes] have to exist,” said Lau. “But they’re just so hard to see seismically.” Consequently, seismic waves capture only slices of plumes, and their properties are often the subject of unresolvable debate. Ideally, scientists want to produce a plume image that stretches from its base to the planet’s surface. That would require a cornucopia of seismometers spread over a vast area, forming a huge aperture that could eat up as many seismic waves as possible and thereby see a sizable segment of the mantle—a seismic equivalent of a giant telescope. So, in 2012, scientists built one. The Tree and the Truth: That year, two vessels zigzagged across the western Indian Ocean, occasionally stopping to make a submarine seismometer walk the plank and sink to the seafloor. In total, 57 were thrown overboard, ultimately creating a 2,000-by-2,000-kilometer aperture. This vast array was augmented by 37 seismic stations positioned on Madagascar and various smaller islands. For 13 months between 2012 and 2013, that aperture was open. Its objective: to hunt down the Réunion plume, one of the most consequential fountains of fire to grace the planet in the past 100 million years. But as the team looked at the entire region, the data began to reveal a spectacular sight. The African giant blob, 2,900 kilometers below the surface, grows up from its middle to form a “trunk,” reaching a depth of 1,500 kilometers. The top of the trunk, dubbed the cusp, appears to grow thick branches of hot matter from its western and eastern extremities. These grow diagonally upward until they reach a depth of 1,000 to 800 kilometers; at this point, the tops of these branches sprout vertically rising thin branches. One of these thin branches reaches the underside of hyper-volcanic Réunion. Around 3,000 kilometers northwest, another diagonal branch stretches to East Africa, a region awash with volcanism and which prior seismic work has found to be home to one or perhaps two mantle plumes. But there was a problem: This structure was difficult to reconcile with the laws of thermodynamics. Plumes, being so hot and buoyant, rise quickly—at 10 times the speed of other mantle migrations, including the movement of plates. “The plumes are so quick. You don’t have time to tilt them” as they ascend, said Goes. Tsekhmistrenko, Sigloch, and company agree: Plumes rise straight up. The tree structure, then, is evidence for a more complex process going on in the mantle. Here’s how they think it works: The African blob—including the trunk and cusp—gets heated by the core. The eastern and western peripheries of the hot cusp, surrounded by a large proportion of relatively cooler ambient mantle material, are considerably buoyant. Eventually, an 800-kilometer blob pinches off from each end; both rise vertically for tens of millions of years. Eventually, they reach the shallow boundary between the dense lower mantle and the less dense upper mantle. There, they spread out laterally. Several tails sprout off the top of them and rise vertically, forming those narrow towers classically referred to as plumes. Maria Tsekhmistrenko and others wearing construction clothes Maria Tsekhmistrenko (right) and other technicians during the month-long cruise to deploy 57 seismometers on the Indian Ocean seafloor in October 2012. Meanwhile, as one of these two sub-blobs rises toward East Africa and one rises toward Réunion, the eastern and western extremities of the cusp—now closer to its middle—produce two new blobs, which also rise straight up. Since they leave later and are positioned to the lower right and lower left of the East African and Réunion blobs respectively, they resemble diagonal, interconnected branches. In reality, they are separate blobs, all rising vertically. Independent scientists have largely applauded the research. Classically, the problem with imaging plume structures in high resolution is a lack of seismic data. Not so this time, said Rychert, “because they had this amazing experiment in the Indian Ocean,” one that gorged itself on a smorgasbord of seismic waves. Combining the data from the giant array with additional seismic data sets proved instrumental, as it allowed the team to precisely resolve an entire swath of the mantle, from its greatest depths to its highest reaches. “In terms of the seismology, it is a step forward,” said Carolina Lithgow-Bertelloni, a geophysicist at the University of California, Los Angeles. “In that sense, I think it’s great.” The tree structure is “an intriguing observation,” said Fitton, and the team’s model of how it branches up from the core is “quite a clever idea.” But he cautions that their precise model for what’s going on in the mantle is just one of several possible interpretations of what is happening. “I think that’s a really cool idea,” said Rychert. “I don’t know if it’s the right idea, but it’s cool.” “Seismic tomography is a snapshot of today,” said Lithgow-Bertelloni. Taking snapshots of present-day structures and speculating on how they formed over millions of years, and how they will continue to evolve, is rife with uncertainty, she cautions.

The Cataclysms to Come
If the team’s theoretical model is correct, it bolsters two long-held trains of thought. The first, said Goes, is that Earth’s plumes are “not as simple as just making an upwelling in a box of syrup in a laboratory.” Nature is complex, and in oft-surprising ways. The second is that these giant blobs have played, and will continue to play, a pivotal role in the planet’s tumultuous history. Some scientists suspect that plumes from the African giant blob spent at least 120 million years tearing the ancient supercontinent of Gondwana into shards. As the plumes rose into its base, they heated it and weakened it; like moles making hills, they caused the land atop these plumes to dome upward, then slide downhill. Australia was unzipped from India and Antarctica, Madagascar from Africa, and the Seychelles microcontinent from India—an act of destruction that made the Indian Ocean. Should the plume or plumes beneath East Africa sustain their onslaught, they will contribute to the future disintegration of the African continent: specifically, the breakup of East Africa and the creation of a new microcontinent floating beside the world’s youngest ocean.

But that future tectonic divorce seems insignificant when you consider the catastrophe that may befall the continent’s southern tip. The team estimates that, in tens of millions of years, a blob of nightmarishly gargantuan proportions will pinch off from the central cusp and rise to meet what is now South Africa’s foundations. This, said Sigloch, would produce cataclysmic eruptions. The Deccan Traps were caused by what we would think of as a solitary mantle plume. This future mega-blob, though, would be capable of producing volcanism so prolific and extensive that the Deccan Traps would be a firecracker in comparison. Envisioning future volcanic apocalypses may be disquieting. But that is precisely why painting precise pictures of plumes matters: They are arbiters of life and death. And yet, for all the chaos they cause, they are a key part of the unceasing cycle of plate tectonics, one that erratically buries and erupts carbon and water and has, miraculously, resulted in a habitable planet with a breathable atmosphere and expansive oceans—a paradise made by abyssal behemoths. “Knowing how a planet manages to do this for billions of years to basically allow human existence is important,” said Rychert. It will be some time yet before the mantle’s monsters are thoroughly understood. Until that day arrives, scientists will keep sketching out the shape-shifting mantle, all the while listening to the many beasts stirring far below their feet. Original story reprinted with permission from Quanta Magazine, an editorially independent publication of the Simons Foundation whose mission is to enhance public understanding of science by covering research developments and trends in mathematics and the physical and life sciences.

map diagram

RELATED POSTS:

LINK#1: THE GEOLOGY OF HAWAII: https://tambonthongchai.com/2020/04/08/hawaiianhotspot/

LINK#2: GEOLOGICAL CARBON FLOWS#3: https://tambonthongchai.com/2021/04/25/geological-carbon-flows-part-3/

LINK#3: GEOLOGICAL CARBON FLOWS#2: https://tambonthongchai.com/2021/01/20/offshore-hydrocarbon-seeps/

LINK#4: GEOLOGIC AL CARBON FLOWS#1 https://tambonthongchai.com/2019/08/27/carbonflows/

THIS POST IS A STUDY OF SUPERSTITION AS THE PRIMARY DRIVING FORCE IN ECO WACKO ENVIRONMENTALISM IN THE CONTEXT OF POST MODERNISM.

WE PROPOSE THAT THE THEORY OF HUMAN CAUSED GLOBAL WARMING IS A CREATION OF THIS LINE OF THINKING.

PART-1: SEAN MCDOWELL, THE RELIGION OF APOCALYPTIC ENVIRONMENTALISM

LINK: https://seanmcdowell.org

SeanMcDowell.org

I don’t want you to be hopeful. I want you to panic. I want you to act as you would in a crisis. I want you to act as if our house is on fire. Because it is.” – Greta Thunberg, student activist. Have you ever wondered why people are so drawn to apocalyptic environmentalism? Why do so many people believe the narrative that we are irreversibly destroying the environment and the world will end soon? There must be a good reason why people like Leonardo DiCaprio and Greta Thunberg promote doomsday scenarios as for example that modern civilization will end soon but that there are things the humans can and must do to save the earth from this doomsday. These doomsday obsessions are also promoted by the media and by politicians.

Here is the question: Where is all this coming from? What is the deeper reason for otherwise rational humans to be acting this way? What Sean says is that there is a DEEPER REASON.

THE REST OF THIS POST IS THE BLOGGER’S ABBREVIATED VERSION OF WHAT SEAN SAYS. >>>

THE DEEPER REASON IS OUR NEED FOR RELIGION IN A RATIONAL WORLD OF SCIENCE WHERE CONVENTIONAL RELIGION DOES NOT FIT.

Michael Hanlon quote: Global warming, indeed much of environmentalism, has  become a new...

Apocalyptic activism is a new kind of secular religion and in that context, the environmentalism movement of our time is the dominant secular religion of the educated, upper-middle-class elite. It provides a new story about our collective identity and individual purpose. It designates good guys and bad guys, heroes and villains, the holy and the sinners but not in the traditional language of religion but in the modern language of science, which is thought to give it the assumed legitimacy. And it is thus that environmentalism has replaced Christianity in the west. Christianity has facilitated the environmentalism interpretation with Genesis where we find that humans are created in God’s image and given Dominion over nature such that humans are not part of nature but its masters and caretakers.

In the Christian tradition, humans have failed to be in a proper relationship with God. In apocalyptic environmentalism, humans have failed to be in a proper relationship with nature. Rather than looking to priests to interpret scripture, apocalyptic environmentalism looks to SCIENCE for authority. Recycling has replaced communion as a “spiritual” practice. And rather than yearning for Heaven, when we are at peace with God and others, apocalyptic environmentalism yearns for a future when we are at peace with “the envronment”, a weird reference to the humanless nature of Bambi and friends.

Bambi Flower Thumper Owl & Friends | Dessins disney, Bambi de disney, Fond  d'écran dessin animé

Apocalyptic environmentalism borrows the trappings of the Christian worldview from sin to redemption, rites, and salvation. A case of good vs. evil. According to Michael Shellenberger, apocalyptic environmentalism provides people with a grand story as in religion, in which they are the heroes, so they can find meaning in their lives.

Environmental Evangelists

As humans, we need purpose. We need to feel like we are part of a bigger story. If we don’t find our meaning and purpose in life in the way God intended we will find it somewhere else. Being caretakers of “the environment” provides that role for humans where they can be environmental evangelists. Many environmental evangelists are unaware of the religion they are propagating. They sincerely believe the narrative and promote it for the benefit of mankind. And many think they are merely adhering to science, not superstition or fantasy. But what they are promoting is religion, and many of their claims are not supported by science. Apocalyptic environmentalism is a religion.

The Buddha, his life, teachings, and the environment | The Sunday Times Sri  Lanka

IN A RELATED POST WE PRESENT THIS RELIGIOUS INTERPRETATION OF ENVIRONMENTALISM AND CLIMATE ACTION BY SIR DAVID ATTENBOROUGH, A FAMOUS ENVIRONMENTALIST WHO HAS BEEN ABLE TO DIVIDE THE WORLD OF LIVING CREATURES INTO TWO PARTS AS (1) “THE NATURAL WORLD” (BEASTS AND BIRDS AND WORMS AND TREES AND SUCH) AND “THE UNNATURAL WORLD” OF THE HUMANS, WITH THE ACTIVISM INTERPRETATION THAT HUMANS ARE NOT PART OF LIFE ON EARTH BUT AN EXTERNAL AND DESTRUCTIVE FORCE THAT THREATENS THE NATURAL WORLD SUCH THAT THE WORLD NEEDS ENVIRONMENTAL ACTIVISM SUCH AS HIS, TO SAVE THE NATURAL WORLD FROM THE UNNATURAL WORLD OF HUMANS.

Brazilian Couple Created 1,502-Acre Forest In 20 Years, Which Houses 500+  Endangered Plant & Animal Species | Animal species, Trees to plant, Replant
THE NATURAL WORLD

Sir David recently enjoyed a private viewing of his new documentary in the grounds of Kensington Palace with the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge, after their children requested to meet him
THE UNNATURAL WORKD

THE CLOSE LINK BETWEEN RELIGION AND ENVIRONMENTALISM DESCRIBED BY SEAN AND MICHAEL ABOVE IS MADE ALL THE MORE CLEAR IN THIS PRESENTATION OF BUDDHISM BY SUPREME ENVIRONMENTALIST SIR DAVID ATTENBOROUGH WHERE WE FIND THESE ENVIRONMENTALISM WISDOMS IN THE SAYINGS OF GAUTAMA BUDDHA:

ENVIRONMENTALISM WISDOMS IN BUDDHISM AS DESCRIBED BY SIR DAVID.

MORE ON SUPERSTITION IN RELIGION: THE CASE OF BUDDHISM

Amazon.com: Siddhartha Gautama Buddha: The Mind Is Everything What You  Think You Become eBook : Patel, Dhirubhai: Kindle Store
GAUTAMA BUDDHA

SUPERSTITION IN RELIGION

FATALISM

Fatalism refers to a particular way in which people regard the events that occur in their lives, usually expressed as a belief that an individual does not have personal control over circumstances and that their lives are determined through a divine or powerful external agency (Hazen & Ehiri, 2006). These views are at odds with the dominant themes of modern health promotion movements, and present significant challenges for health advocates who aim to avert road crashes and diminish their consequences. The limited literature on fatalism reveals that it is not a simple concept, with religion, culture, superstition, experience, education and degree of perceived control of one’s life all being implicated in accounts of fatalism. One distinction in the literature that seems promising is the distinction between empirical and theological fatalism, although there are areas of uncertainty about how well-defined the distinction between these types of fatalism is.

Understanding the Creation Story from Genesis | Zondervan Academic
Bambi Turns 75! Take a Deeper Look at the Film's Impact on Animation, Risk  Taking and the Loss of a Parent

RELATED POST ON BAMBI: LINK: https://tambonthongchai.com/2020/11/15/the-bambi-principle/

BOTTOM LINE: ECO WACKO ENVIRONMENTALISM IS WHAT WE NEED IN A POST MODERN WORLD WHERE THE CREDIBILITY OF TRADITIONAL RELIGONS HAS WANED. THE GLOBAL WARMING ISSUE IS PART OF THAT ENVIRONMENTALISM CREED. THE SERIOUS STATISTICAL AND METHODOLOGICL ERRORS IN CLIMATE SCIENCE THAT WE HAVE DESCRIBED IN RELATED POSTS MUST BE UNDERSTOOD AS DANGEROUS NONSENSE IN THIS CONTEXT BECAUSE NOT FOLLOWING THE CREED TO THE LETTER RISKS ARMAGEDDON IN THE FORM OF DESTRUCTION OF THE PLANET AND THE END OF MANKIND.

Don't look away now: are viewers finally ready for the truth about nature?  | David Attenborough | The Guardian

{1}: QUORA QUESTION:

How worried are you that rising temperatures of global warming will have a significant impact on your life?

{2}: ANSWERED BY RYSZARD RAKOWSKI:

Not worried at all. Global warming is not an “existential threat”, it is a political and economic scam. IPCC and corrupt politicians should be jailed for perpetuating this lie.

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is image-50.png

{3}: COMMENT BY GARY KRAMER:

Rubbish! Please read the science and educate yourself.

#1 Read the IPCC AR6 – Sixth Assessment Report. The State of the Climate in 2020.

#2: UK climate change – Climate Change Committee,

#3: Canada Climate Change Report – Canada’s Changing Climate.

#4: Australia’s State of the Climate Report.

#5: Climate Change Scenarios for New Zealand.

#6: USA Climate Change Report –

#7: Global Climate Report – Annual 2020,

#8: GHG emissions – CO₂ and Greenhouse Gas Emissions,

#9: Global temperatures- World of Change: Global Temperatures,

#10: Ice core data – Factcheck: What Greenland ice cores say about past and present climate change,

#11: More ice core data – CO2 Ice Core Data,

#12: CO2 emissions – CO2 emissions.

#13: IPCC Review In-depth Q&A: The IPCC’s sixth assessment report on climate science – Carbon Brief.

#14: If you believe that’s there’s a worldwide conspiracy then you are entitled to that belief. Unfortunately it has no basis in fact.

{4}: CRITICAL EVALUATION OF THE GARY KRAMER COMMENT.

(1) THE 6TH IPCC REPORT:

IF THE IPCC KNOWS THE CAUSE AND UNDERSTANDS THE EVOLUTION OF THE CURRENT WARMING TREND OF THE HOLOCENE INTERGLACIAL AS A CAUSE AND EFFECT PHENOMENON DRIVEN BY HUMAN ACTIVITY, WHY DO THEY NEED 6 REPORTS? IS THERE SOMETHING WRONG WITH THE FIRST 5? ARE THOSE 5 REPORTS FALSEHOODS? DO THEY CONTAIN ERRORS THAT NEED CORRECTING?

IF SO WHAT ASSURANCE DO WE HAVE THAT THE 6TH VERSION OF THIS REPORT DOES NOT CONTAIN ERRORS OR THAT THE REPORT IS NOT A FALSEHOOD THAT WILL BE REVEALED TO US IN THE 7TH IPCC REPORT?

IN THAT CONTEXT IT SHOULD BE NOTED THAT IN WHAT THE IPCC HAS GIVEN US AS GOD GIVEN TRUTH THAT MUST NOT BE QUESTIONED, WE FIND KNOWN STATISTICAL ERRORS SUCH AS THE TCRE METRIC OF CLIMATE SCIENCE. OF THE MANY FALLACIES OF THE TCRE NOTED IN RELATED POSTS ON THIS SITE,, THE MOST EGREGIOUS IS THE MATHEMATICAL INCONSISTENCY ISSUE WHERE THE ECS AND THE TCRE ARE CLAIMED TO REPRESENT THE SAME UNDERLYING PHENOMENON BUT WITH MECHANISMS THAT ARE INTERNALLY INCONSISTENT.

THE IPCC PRESENTATION, THOUGHT TO BE TRUTH BY DEFINITION SIMPLY BECAUSE IT IS THE THE IPCC, SUFFERS FROM THE AD HOMINEM FALLACY. WHAT’S MORE, THE REPORT CONTAINS SERIOUS METHODOLIGICAL AND STATISTICAL ERRORS DESCRIBED IN THESE LINKED DOCUMENTS:

LINK1: https://tambonthongchai.com/2021/08/10/links-to-ipcc6-posts/ ,

LINK2: https://tambonthongchai.com/?s=MATHEMATICAL+INCONSISTENCY

(2): THE UK 2021 CLIMATE REPORT:

THIS REPORT SAYS THAT IT PRESENTS THREE KEY MESSAGES AS FOLLOWS: (1) Historic promisses: The Government has made historic climate promises in the past year, for which it deserves credit. However, it has been too slow to follow these with delivery. This defining year for the UK’s climate credentials has been marred by uncertainty and delay to a host of new climate strategies. Those that have emerged have too often missed the mark. With every month of inaction, it is harder for the UK to get on track.

(2): Progress on Net Zero: Lockdown measures led to a record decrease in UK emissions in 2020 of 13% from the previous year. Sustained reductions in emissions require sustained Government leadership, underpinned by a strong Net Zero Strategy: A Net Zero Test would ensure that all Government policy, including planning decisions, is compatible with UK climate targets.


(4): The big cross-cutting challenges of public engagement, fair funding and local delivery must be tackled.

CRITICAL COMMENTARY: WHAT WE SEE HERE IS THE POLITICS OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND NO CIMATE SCIENCE EXCEPT FOR THE “NET ZERO STRATEGY” THAT VIOLATES CLIMATE SCIENCE. AS EXPLAINED IN A RELATED POST ON “WHAT DOES NET ZERO MEAN” WE SHOW THAT NET ZERO STRATEGIES VIOLATE THE CLIMATE SCIENCE OF CLIMATE ACTION. CLIMATE ACTION MEANS ZERO FOSSIL FUEL EMISSIONS. NET ZERO MEANS WE CAN KEEP BURNING FOSSIL FUELS IF WE CANCEL IT OUT IN THE CARBON CREDITS MARKET OR IN CARBON CYCLE INTERVENTIONS. THESE STRATEGIES ARE INCONSISTENT WITH THE CLIMATE ACTION DEMANDED BY CLIMATE SCIENCE WHICH CALLS FOR ZERO FOSSIL FUEL EMISSIONS NOT “NET ZERO”. LINK TO RELATED POST ON “WHAT DOES NET ZERO MEAN?” https://tambonthongchai.com/2020/02/25/net-zero/

LINKS TO RELATED POST ON THE CLIMATE ACTION FLAW IN NET ZERO:

LINK#1: https://tambonthongchai.com/2020/06/19/vegandiet/

LINK#2: https://tambonthongchai.com/2021/05/20/the-power-of-trees/

(3): CANADA’S CHANGING CLIMATE:

Canada is doing a great job of putting into perspective the threat of climate change, as described in the latest IPCC report, in a Canadian context. The Canadian story is potentially more catastrophic then the global one. Canada has been warming at an estimated 1.7°C since 1948, or a little more than double the global average of 0.8°C. Furthermore, the report echo the IPCC finding that our emission need to be reduced drastically immediately to be able to reach net-zero in 2050. If we fail the consequence will be catastrophic with warming potentially reaching an average of 6.3°C and as high as 11°C in Northern Canada under a high emission scenario. It is important to remind ourselves that the temperature difference between the last ice age and now was about 4°C to 7°C and took 5 thousand years so a 6.3°C warming in 100 years is unprecedented and with potentially catstrophic consequences. With regards to the potential impact of a 6.3°C increase, the report predict that extreme temperature of the sort that occured every 50 years will now happen yearly. It also predicts that the Hudson Bay will most likely be ice free year round by 2050 let alone 2100. Furthermore, even under a medium emission scenario the report predict that Most small ice caps and ice shelves in the Canadian Arctic will disappear by 2100
Sea level change won’t escape our foolishness with decreases of up to 90 centimeters, and increases ranging from 50 centimetres on the Pacific coast to 1 meter on the Atlantic Coast. However the report reminds us that we are not only the cause of this problem but also the solution. Beyond the next few decades, the largest uncertainty about the magnitude of future climate change is rooted in uncertainty about human behaviour, that is, whether the world will follow a pathway of low, medium, or high emissions. As the previous IPCC report and our latest Canadian Food Guide reminds us our food choices have consequences, and will be an integral part of ever hoping to meet, let alone exceed, our goals of limiting temperature increase by 2100 to 1.5°C. Want to fight our climate emergency, loss of nature, global acidification, eutrophication, fresh water shortage, prevent pandemics, antibiotic resistance, health problems, save countless lives and much much more without the need to wait for government, corporations or technological innovation? Go vegan today! Contact us for help in your change of lifestyle and to link up with one of the many local communities in your area.

(4): SIMILAR NATIONAL CLIMATE ACTION PLANS ARE FOUND IN THE AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND CLIMATE CHANGE ASSESSMENT REPORTS.

IN SUMMARY, THE CLIMATE ACTION REPORTS FROM BRITAIN, CANADA, AUSTRALIA, AND NEW ZEALAND, CITED AS CLIMATE SCIENCE, ARE IN REALITY NATIONAL LEVEL CLIMATE ACTION PLANS. YET, AS NOTED IN A RELATED POST, THE ONLY CLIMATE ACTION SOUGHT BY CLIMATE SCIENCE IS A GLOBALLY COORDINATED PROGRAM TO REDUCE GLOBAL FOSSIL FUEL EMISSIONS. THIS IS WHY THE UN WAS INVOLVED. IT WAS THOUGHT THAT THEY COULD PUT TOGEGHER THIS GLOBAL CLIMATE ACTION PLAN ALONG THE LINES OF THE MONTREAL PROTOCOL, THE SO CALLED “MONTREAL PROTOCOL FOR THE CLIMATE”. THAT THE UN HAS FAILED TO DELIVER THE “MONTREAL PROTOCOL FOR THE CLIMATE” DOES NOT MEAN THAT THERE IS AN OPPORTUNITY FOR CLIMATE ACTION HEROISM FOR NATION STATES. THERE ISN’T. IT HAS TO BE GLOBAL. CLIMATE ACTION HEROISM OF NATION STATES WILL NOT DELIVER THE REDUCTION IN GLOBAL FOSSIL FUEL EMISSIONS NEEDED AND DEMANDED BY CLIMATE SCIENCE AS DESCRIBED IN THESE RELATED POSTS.

LINK#1: https://tambonthongchai.com/2021/02/23/renewable-energy-statistics/

LINK#2: https://tambonthongchai.com/2020/05/22/climate-catch22/

LINK#3: https://tambonthongchai.com/2021/08/21/cop26-glasgow-2021/

Customer Reviews: Gomer Pyle U.S.M.C.: The Complete Series [24 Discs] [DVD]  - Best Buy

LINK TO SOURCE AND FULL TEXT: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2417143

ABSTRACT

The mathematics of continuous compounding is not limited to the valuation of continuously compounded financial instruments and flow annuities, but rather it is a versatile and robust model that may be used for valuation of all financial contracts normally encountered. It consists of a simple, consistent, coherent and conceptually appealing set of equations that apply without modification to the complete range of applications. The discrete stepwise model of compounding, by contrast, is a redundant innovation that is more complicated than the generalized model and limited in scope.

FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS

Because financial contracting involves stepwise compounding and discrete cash flow streams it is thought that the exponential model does not apply because it subsumes continuous compounding. Conventional wisdom is that an entirely new approach to valuation is necessary. We show in this paper that this is not so because for any financial contract that offers a stepwise rate of return r, there exists an equivalent continuous rate c, and for any discrete annuity there exists an equivalent flow annuity; and there are simple relationships between the continuous compounding parameters and the discrete compounding parameters. The continuous compounding model is not limited to pricing continuously compounded securities but in fact the model is more general in scope than the discrete model. We show that the continuous exponential model is robust and simple and is easily applied to all forms of financial contracting for valuation purposes. The simple and consistent set of equations presented here apply without modification under all combinations of payment and compounding periods and may be used to price a wide variety of financial contracts. It is taken for granted that sufficient computational machinery and software exist so that in practice it will not be necessary to grind out the algebra presented in this paper or in textbooks. It is proposed only that the algebra presented here is superior to the textbook approach for the purpose of teaching the concept of exponential growth in finance.

The Equivalent Flow Annuity.

Consider a chunky annuity that pays $1 per period m times a year at equal intervals of time. After the first period, 1/m years have passed and $1 has been received. We can compute the value of this payment as zt = ect = e-c/m. We now price a flow annuity of EFA dollars per year for 1/m years as vt = EFA(1-e-)/c. For equal wealth we set zt = vt to get EFA = c/(1-e -c/m). The Equivalent Continuous Rate. Equate the value of wt at any value of t say t=1 with n compounding periods per year and a period rate of to get e c = (1+r)n . Take the natural logarithm of both sides and the result is c = nln(1+r).

SOME TEXTBOOK EXAMPLES

EXAMPLE 1:

Your deferred compensation plan will pay $1,000 in 5 years. What is the value of this plan today if your required rate of return is 10% per year with continuous compounding?

zt = e-ct = e-50.10 = 0.60653066. The value today is 0.606530661000 = $606.53

EXAMPLE 2:

You decide to invest $10,000 a year for 20 years in a bond mutual fund with payments spread continuously over the year. The fund pays 10.5175% APY2 . How much will your contributions be worth after 20 years? What lump sum could you invest today to have the same amount in 20 years?

c = nln(1+r) = 1ln(1+0.10517) = 0.10 zt = e-ct = e-200.10 = 0.135335 vt = (1-zt)/c = 0.8646647/0.10 = 8.646647 = w0 wt = w0e ct = 8.646647e0.1020 = 8.6466477.389056099 = 63.89056099

The present value is $86,466.47 and the future value is $638,905.61

EXAMPLE 3:

The Searcy Hat Company is planning an expansion that is expected to provide cash flows of $100,000 per year, generated continuously throughout the year as a flow annuity, for 20 years. At the end of the 20-year period, the investment can be liquidated for $200,000. The required rate of return is 10.517% APY. What is the value of this project today?

c = nln(1+r) = 1ln(1+0.10517) = 0.10 zt = e-ct = e-200.10 = 0.135335 vt = (1-zt)/c = 0.8646647/0.10 = 8.646647 The value of the project is 8.64667100,000 + 0.135335*200,000 = $891,734

EXAMPLE 4:

You invest $1,000 today in a fund that pays 10% per year continuously compounded.
How much will you have at the end of 5 years?
1/zt = e, ct = e0.10*5 = 1.64872. You will have $1,648.72

EXAMPLE 5:

Montgomery National Bank pays 10% interest on savings compounded annually. If you invest $100 today, how much will you have 20 years from now?
c = nln(1+r) = 1ln(1+0.10) = 0.09531018, wt = ect = e20* 0.09531018 = 6.727499949.

You will have $672.75

MORE EXAMPLES

THIS POST IS A CRITICAL REVIEW OF THE WORRY BY ENVIRONMENTAL ACTIVISTS THAT THE OCEAN IS BEING POLLUTED BY CARGO SHIPS BECAUSE THERE ARE SO MANY OF THEM.

LINK: https://medium.com/age-of-awareness/big-cargo-ships-big-pollution-834a525d7b7f

CRITICAL COMMENTARY

ON AVERAGE, A FULLY LOADED CARGO SHIP WEIGHS 220,000 TONNES AND THAT MEANS THAT ALL THE 5,371 CARGO SHIPS OF THE WORLD FULLY LOADED WEIGH A TOTAL OF 1.18 GIGATONNES OR 1.18E9 TONNES. THE WATER IN THE OCEAN WEIGHS 1.4E18 TONNES. THIS MEANS THAT THE WEIGHT OF ALL THE CARGO SHIPS OF THE WORLD AND ALL THEIR CARGO TAKEN TOGETHER IS 0.000008% OF THE WEIGHT OF THE WATER IN THE OCEAN.

IF THE HUMANS COULD MAKE AND SINK 5,371 FULLY LOADED CARGO SHIPS AND ALL THEIR CARGO INTO THE OCEAN EVERY YEAR, IT WOULD TAKE THE HUMANS 125,000 YEARS TO GET THEIR SHIPPING POLLUTION UP TO 1% OF THE WATER IN THE OCEAN.

CONCLUSION:

THE OCEAN IS A VERY BIG PLACE AND WHAT’S MORE, WE DON’T REALLY KNOW THE OCEAN.

IT’S A LITTLE TOO PREMATURE FOR THE HUMANS TO BE PLAYING THEIR ECO WACKO GAMES IN THE OCEAN.

Free Vector | Ocean plastic garbage pollution with ship illustration
Giant Ships Are Polluting the Seas With Thousands of Lost Cargo Containers

A look at the traders behind the China-Ecuador-U.S. oil triangle | Reuters

A NEW AND CREATIVE FORM OF CLIMATE ACTIVISM IS THE CASE OF CHEVRON IN ECUADOR WHERE IT IS CLAIMED THAT THE CHEVRON OIL PRODUCTION FACILITY IN ECUADOR IS GUILTY OF CONTAMINATION. THE ECUADORIAN COURT FOUND CHEVRON GUILTY AND CHARGED IT A FINE OF $18 BILLION BUT LATER ASKED FOR ONLY $9 BILLION. THIS ISSUE HAS BEEN MADE INTO A KIND OF CLIMATE CHANGE ACTIVISM IN THE FORM OF THE EVIL OF THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY. HERE WE ARGUE THAT THE EVIL IF ANY IN THIS CASE IS IN THE USE OF IT FOR CLIMATE ACTIVISM.

ECUADOR IS A COUNTRY RICH IN OIL AND GAS RESERVES BUT WITH A BIZARRE COMBINATION OF EXTREME WEALTH AND TRAGIC AND WIDESPREAD POVERTY IN THE COUNTRY SIDE. THIS COMBINATION IS A CREATION OF CORRUPTION AND IS SEEN ELSEWHERE IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD AS NOTED BY TRANSPARENCY INTERNATIONAL. CORRUPTION IN THE THIRD WORLD USUALLY INVOLVES AN UNDERSTANDING BETWEEN RICH BUSINESSMEN AND GOVERNMENT INSIDERS THAT MONEY MATTERS AND SOLVES CONTENTIOUS ISSUES BETWEEN GOVERNMENT AND BUSINESS.

CHEVRON IS NOT THE ONLY FOREIGN OPERATION THERE IN THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY. THE LARGEST OPERATERS ARE THE CHINESE AND THEY SEEM TO GET ALONG WELL WITH THE GOVERNMENT THERE. WE ALSO HAVE OIL AND GAS OPERATIONS FROM SPAIN AND ITALY DOWN THERE. BUT CHEVRON IS THE ONLY FOREIGN OPERATION THERE THAT IS CONSTRAINED BY LAWS BACK IN ITS HOME COUNTRY THAT RESTRICT ITS ABILITY TO COOPERATE WITH CORRUPT FOREIGN GOVERNMENTS.

Corruption-growth interrelation. Source: Authors own illustration. |  Download Scientific Diagram

CORRUPTION IS THE THE REASON WE FIND THINGS LIKE THIS

Housing in poverty stricken Ecuador Stock Photo - Alamy

IN AN OIL RICH COUNTRY

Coveted and criticised, Latin America's super-rich multiply
Latin America's Plans to Tax the Rich

FROM TIME TO TIME THE GOVERNMENTS DOWN THERE COME UP WITH PLANS TO TAX THE RICH AND HELP THE POOR BUT THESE PLANS ARE EASILY MODIFIED BY CORRUPTION. THE ESSENCE OF CORRUPTION IN THE THIRD WORLD IS A CLOSE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GOVERNMENT AND THE RICH THAT BENEFTS BOTH PARTIES BUT THAT LEAVES OUT THE POOR.

Ecuador: pandemic casts 30% below poverty threshold

FOREIGN FIRMS THAT OPERATE IN THIS ENVIRONMENT HAVE TO GO ALONG TO GET ALONG AND THOSE THAT DO SUCCEED AND THOSE THAT DON’T MEET THE SHARP END OF THE CORRUPTION STICK. THE CHEVRON ISSUE IS NOT A CLIMATE CHANGE ISSUE. IT IS A CORRUPTION ISSUE IN A COUNTRY KNOWN FOR ITS CORRUPTION AND ITS BIZARRE COMBINATION OF EXTREME WEALTH AND EXTREME POVERTY – A KNOWN FEATURE OF CORRUPT COUNTRIES. THE GENERAL CONSENSUS FROM TRANSPARENCY INTERNATIONAL TO THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT ABOUT CORRUPTION IN ECUADOR IS SUMMARIZED BELOW.

Corruption is a serious problem in Ecuador. Ecuadorian law provides criminal penalties for corruption by public officials, but the government does not implement the law effectively, and officials may engage in corrupt practices with impunity. Ecuador ranked 120 out of 176 countries surveyed for Transparency International’s 2016 Corruption Perceptions Index and received a score of 31 out of 100. Two high-profile cases of alleged official corruption involving state-owned petroleum company PetroEcuador and Brazilian construction firm Odebrecht illustrate the significant challenges that confront Ecuador with regards to corruption. Illicit payments for official favors and theft of public funds reportedly take place frequently. Dispute settlement procedures are complicated by the lack of transparency and inefficiency in the judicial system. Offering or accepting a bribe is illegal and punishable by imprisonment for up to five years. The Controller General is responsible for the oversight of public funds and there are frequent investigations and occasional prosecutions for irregularities. Ecuador ratified the UN Anticorruption Convention in September 2005. Ecuador is not a signatory to the OECD Convention on Combating Bribery. The 2008 Constitution created the Transparency and Social Control branch of government, tasked with preventing and combating corruption, among other things. In December 2008, President Correa issued a decree that created the National Secretariat for Transparency to investigate and denounce acts of corruption in the public sector. Both entities can conduct investigations into alleged acts of corruption. Responsibility for prosecution remains with the Office of the Prosecutor General.

241 Poverty In Ecuador Stock Photos, Pictures & Royalty-Free Images - iStock

CONCLUSION: THE “CONTAIMINATION” ISSUE IN ECUADOR IS MADE UNCLEAR BY CORRUPTION AND IT CANNOT BE UNDERSTOOD AS A CLIMATE CHANGE ISSUE OR AS THE INNATE EVIL OF THE FOSSIL FUEL INDUSTRY.



  • chaamjamal: Thank you
  • skeptic16: The environmentalist Left and their wealthy financial supporters are not so keen on returning manufacturing to the US where production would be cleane
  • fgsjr2015: Greta Thunberg aptly and poignantly described the global-warming (non)efforts of faux or neo-environmentalist politicos as just more "blah, blah, blah