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Experts at Roman fort Vindolanda fear that climate change is drying the peat soil that protects ancient objects

Climate change threatening buried UK treasures: LINK TO SOURCE: https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-60091485


PART-1: WHAT THE ARTICLE SAYS


Experts at Roman fort Vindolanda fear that climate change is drying the peat soil that protects ancient objects as the soils that protect them dry out. A Roman toilet seat, the world’s oldest boxing glove, and the oldest handwritten letter by a woman are some of the extraordinary objects discovered in at-risk British peatlands. Archaeologists say that climate change could undermine our understanding of our past. About 22,500 archaeological sites in UK may be in danger. The problem is that changing weather patterns are drying out some peatlands – the waterlogged soils that cover about 10% of the UK. Because peat contains very little oxygen, organic materials like wood, leather and textiles do not rot. They can survive for thousands of years, preserved by the stable anoxic chemistry of the soil. But if the soils dry, oxygen can enter the system, kick-starting the process of decomposition. If that happens artefacts can quickly, rot away. Excavating these potentially huge sites could cost hundreds of millions of pounds and take decades, by which time they may have been badly damaged. A baby’s shoe was preserved for 2,000 years in peat soil. Magna is a Roman fort alongside Hadrian’s Wall. The drying process may already be under way at this site. The land at Magna has subsided by up to a metre in places in the past decade. It is evidence of “desiccation” – the drying of the peat layer. Our warming world is devastating the peatlands and the secrets of the remains of a vast Roman settlement found by archaeologists. Climate change is devastating our history. me capsule” is at risk, he says, because only a tiny part of the site has so far been excavated. Pretty much everything the Romans used here for 300 or 400 years were preserved in peatlands but it is all about to be taken away by climate change. Another fort a few miles along Hadrian’s Wall gives an idea of the astonishing objects that could lie hidden at Magna. Digs at Vindolanda have uncovered the world’s oldest boxing gloves – so well-preserved that you can still see the imprint of the boxer’s knuckles on one. More Roman footwear has been discovered here than at any other site in the world. It is also the source of the oldest handwritten message by a woman found anywhere. In the note, Claudia Severa, the wife of the commanding officer of a nearby fort, invites her friend Lepidina to her birthday party on 11 September about 1,900 years ago. “Oh how much I want you at my birthday party,” writes Claudia. “You’ll make the day so much more fun. I do so hope you can make it. Goodbye, sister, my dearest soul.” A boxing glove was found as well as combs, toys and shoes at the site of Roman forts. A boxing glove was found as well as combs, toys and shoes at the site of Roman forts. Day-to-day objects like this provide a unique connection to the lives of ordinary people in ancient times. They can give us amazing insights into what life was really like here on the Northern frontier of the Roman Empire 2,000 years ago. The priority at Magna now is to try to work out what is happening underground. Boreholes have been dug, and electronic equipment measures the water flow and temperature every hour. Dead bodies of the Rmans have been found in peat soils, like the famous Lindow man discovered in Cheshire. Dr Gillian Taylor is analysing the chemicals in soil cores from the site to try to understand the processes at work whereby climate change is taking these precious artefacts away from us. It would be a catastrophe if any if the peat dries. because then these precious artefacts of history will disappear. We will lose our heritage if we don’t look at what’s occurring now and if we don’t take the needed climate action to stop the drying of the peatlands that is destroying our heritage. The condition of the peat is changing rapidly and the treasures could be lost, a full excavation may be necessary.And changing weather patterns are not just threatening the survival of Roman remains but all 22,500 archaeological sites in the peatlands of the UK. Scientists are assessing the effect of climate change on peatland archaeology across the UK. A host of historic sites in peatlands are under threat by Climate Change. The entire sweep of the country’s history is under threat.There are Palaeolithic pathways up to 12,000 years old, and Bronze Age burial sites as well as the remains of more modern settlements and industrial activities. Peatlands have a massive potential to tell us about our past but that is being taken away from us by Climate Change. The loss of peatlands would have big implications for our understanding of the country’s history and also for our climatic history and our environmental history. We must protect them. The UK is about to lose its heritage. It is being taken away by Climate Change. It is imperative that this process must be stopped.

The body of a man discovered in peat soil

PART-2: CRITICAL COMMENTARY

THE GOOD NEWS HERE IS THAT CLIMATE FEARMONGERING IS RUNNING OUT OF THE SCARY STUFF AND THEY ARE DOWN TO CRYING ABOUT THE ARCHEOLOGICAL HERITAGE OF THE UK AND THE NEED FOR THE WORLD TO OVERHAUL THEIR ENERGY INFRASTUCTURE FROM FOSSIL FUELS TO RENEWABLES AT A COST OF TRILLIONS AND TRILLIONS OF DOLLARS SO THE UK CAN RETAIN ITS ARCHEOLOGICAL HERITAGE.

YES SIR, GOT IT. WE NEED CLIMATE ACTION TO SAVE THE PEATLANDS AND SAVE THE ROMAN ARTEFACTS IN THE PEATLANDS. YES SIR. WE’RE ON IT.

Jim Nabors as Gomer Pyle: USMC delighted millions on his classic sitcom -  Click Americana

SCIENTISTS HAVE DETERMINED THAT THEY CAN’T STOP THE NEXT MASS EXTINCTION

LINK TO SOURCE: https://www.ctvnews.ca/climate-and-environment/we-can-t-stop-our-planet-s-next-mass-extinction-event-researchers-say-1.5746554

PART-1: WHAT THE SOURCE ARTICLE SAYS

Not only is Earth in the middle of its next mass extinction event, but it may be too late to undo the harm inflicted upon the planet’s species. This is according to a new study assessing evidence of what it calls an “ongoing extinction event.” The study was published in Biological Reviews, and conducted by biologists from the University of Hawaii and the Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle in Paris. While researchers say that conservation initiatives have been put in place to combat the crisis and protect certain species, the study suggests that the damage has already been done. These initiatives cannot target all species, and they cannot reverse the overall trend of species extinction. A mass extinction event occurred 30M years ago and scientists have only just learned about it. The sixth mass extinction is happening faster than expected. Scientists say it’s our fault. Robert Cowie is the lead author of the study and a research professor at the University of Hawaii at Manoa’s Pacific Biosciences Research Center. He and the study’s co-authors estimate that since the year 1500, as many as 7.5 to 13 per cent of Earth’s two million known species have already gone extinct. That translates to between 150,000 and 260,000 species. These numbers were extrapolated from estimates obtained for land snails and slugs. Including invertebrates was key to confirming that we are indeed witnessing the onset of the Sixth Mass Extinction in Earth’s history,” said Cowie in the press release.According to experts, there have been five mass biodiversity extinction events in Earth’s history, each wiping out between 70 and 95 per cent of plant, animal and microorganism species. The most recent one was 66 million years ago and resulted in the disappearance of dinosaurs. Each was caused by natural phenomena. The idea that the world is confronting yet another mass extinction event isn’t new, with previous studies showing that the rate at which the world’s species are dying out has accelerated in recent decades. Research also suggests this latest crisis is caused entirely by human activities. GREATER IMPACT ON ANIMALS THAN PLANTS: Based on the study, extinction appears to affect different populations of species in different ways depending on their habitat. Although marine species face significant threats, there is no evidence that the crisis is affecting the oceans to the same extent as the land. Additionally, island species, such as those inhabiting the Hawaiian Islands, are more impacted by extinction events than continental species, and the rate of extinction for plant species appears to be lower than that of terrestrial animals. The study analyzes many other investigations into plant extinctions across different regions of the world, noting that such research has generally produced low figures. About 0.55 per cent of the overall flora in Mediterranean Europe has gone extinct, for example, while 2 per cent of the native flora of Europe and Israel has been lost. Researchers also note that while examining studies comparing local extinction rates among taxonomic groups, it appears as though “plants usually have lower extinction rates than invertebrates.”

While this has yet to be demonstrated on a global level, researchers said it’s possible that plants may indeed have a lower rate of extinction than animals.

WHAT NEEDS TO BE DONE?
A mass extinction event generally involves the loss of at least 75 per cent of species. While the study noted that the current ongoing extinction crisis has not yet hit such a high rate of extinction, there is still potential for this to happen in the future, and scientists argue it’s in the process of happening right now.

Going forward, the study’s researchers state that conservation efforts should be maintained in order to prevent further damage to species, and that more research on existing species must be prioritized.

“The biodiversity that makes our world so fascinating, beautiful and functional is vanishing unnoticed at an unprecedented rate,” the study reads. “In the face of a mounting crisis, scientists must adopt the practices of preventive archaeology, and collect and document as many species as possible before they disappear.

“Denying the crisis, simply accepting it and doing nothing, or even embracing it for the ostensible benefit of humanity, are not appropriate options and pave the way for the Earth to continue on its sad trajectory towards a Sixth Mass Extinction.”

PART-2: CRITICAL COMMENTARY

LINKS TO RELATED POSTS ON THE IMPOSSIBILITY OF THE ANTHROPOCENE AND OF HUMAN CAUSED MASS EXTINCTIONS

RELATED POST#1: HUMAN CAUSED MASS EXTINCTION

LINK: https://tambonthongchai.com/2021/11/28/human-caused-mass-extinction/

The mass extinction that might never have happened | New Scientist

RELATED POST#2: CLIMATE CHANGE MASS EXTINCTION:

LINK: https://tambonthongchai.com/2021/08/15/climate-change-mass-extinction/

Image result for end permian extinction

RELATED POST#3: ANTHROPOGENIC MASS EXTINCTION

LINK: https://tambonthongchai.com/2021/02/22/anthropogenic-extinction/

RELATED POST#4: SIXTH MASS EXTINCTION

LINK: https://tambonthongchai.com/2021/02/18/sixth-mass-extinction-2/

Image result for sixth mass extinction images

RELATED POST#5: END TRIASSIC EXTINCTION

LINK: https://tambonthongchai.com/2018/12/07/ete/

RELATED POST#6: OVERPOPULATION – CLIMATE CHANGE – MASS EXTINCTIONS – WORRY WARTISM

LINK: https://tambonthongchai.com/2010/10/20/overpopulation-to-cause-mass-extinctions/

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

THE FIVE GREAT MASS EXTINCTIONS

SUMMARY OF THE FIVE GREAT EXTINCTION EVENTS PROVIDED BY SAMNOBLE MUSEUM: LINK: https://samnoblemuseum.ou.edu/understanding-extinction/mass-extinctions/end-permian-extinction/

(#1: END PERMIAN) When did it happen?: There were two significant extinction events in the Permian Period. The smaller, at the end of a time interval called the Capitanian, occurred about 260 million years ago. The event at the end of the Permian Period (at the end of a time interval called the Changshanian) was much larger and may have eliminated more than three-quarters of species of marine animals. It happened about 252 million years ago and geological evidence shows that it may have taken no more than 200,000 years. In terms of geological time the extinction occurred quickly. Who became extinct? Important groups of marine animals disappeared at the end-Permian extinctions. Trilobites, which had lived in the oceans for more than 250 million years, were lost, along with tabulate and rugose corals. Reef building in shallow seas stopped for about 14 million years until the middle of the following Triassic Period. At that time, an entirely new group of corals, the stony or scleractinian corals, appeared in the oceans. Although they did not become entirely extinct, rhynchonelliform brachiopods, crinoids, shelled cephalopods and snails also suffered significant losses. On land, primitive synapsids (relatives of mammals) disappeared. Some estimates suggest that up to 70 percent of vertebrate genera were lost. Below are some groups of marine animals that became extinct at the end-Permian event. trilobites, Tabulate corals, Rugose corals, goniatitic cephalopods, Productid brachiopods, cladid crinoids. What caused the extinction? Warming of the Earth’s climate and associated changes to oceans were the most likely causes of the extinctions. At the end of the Permian Period volcanic activity on a massive scale in what is now Siberia led to a huge outpouring of lava. The eruptions also produced carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas that helps warm the planet. The lava flows erupted onto carbon rich rocks like coal and as they were heated by the hot lava, greenhouse gases, including methane, were also produced. The global warming that followed may have increased average ocean water temperatures by as much as 14.5°F (8°C). Much of the carbon dioxide released by the eruptions would have been absorbed by the oceans. High levels of dissolved carbon dioxide in seawater are toxic to many marine invertebrates. Also, the dissolved carbon dioxide would have produced changes in seawater chemistry that may have made it difficult for some marine invertebrates, such as corals, to grow shells or skeletons. If that wasn’t bad enough, there is also geological evidence that the amount of oxygen dissolved in sea water (which invertebrates and fishes breath with their gills) was reduced, probably as a result of changes in ocean circulation.

(#2: END TRIASSIC): When did it happen?: The extinction occurred near the end of the Triassic Period, about 201 million years ago. Who became extinct?: All major groups of marine invertebrates survived the extinction, although most suffered losses. Brachiopods, shelled cephalopods, sponges and corals were particularly hard hit. On land, casualties included the phytosaurs, a group of crocodile-like animals. What caused the extinction?: At the end of the Triassic, the supercontinent of Pangea, which combined all of the modern continents into a single landmass, began to break (rift) apart. As North America separated from Africa and the Atlantic Ocean began to form, volcanic activity on a massive scale introduced carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. This led to global warming and changes to the oceans that were similar to (although not as large) those that occurred at the end-Permian extinction. Reconstruction of Late Triassic global geography: All of today’s continents were combined into the supercontinent of Pangea. Pangea was beginning to break apart. As North America and Africa began to separate there was a vast outpouring of lava. The area of volcanic rocks that formed at this time is shown in yellow. Gases, including carbon dioxide, produced during the eruptions led to global climate change.

(#3: LATE DEVONIAN): When did they happen?: The end-Frasnian extinction happened about 375 million years ago. The oldest of the three extinctions, towards the end of a time interval called the Givetian, occurred about 10 million years before the Frasnian event. The youngest extinction happened near the end of the Devonian period, about 365 million years ago, during a time interval called the Famennian. Who became extinct?: The end-Frasnian extinction was most pronounced in tropical environments, particularly in the reefs of the shallow seas. Reef building sponges called stromatoporoids and corals suffered losses and stromatoporoids finally disappeared in the third extinction near the end of the Devonian. Brachiopods associated with reefs also became extinct. Groups of trilobites disappeared at each of the three extinctions and very few survived into the following Carboniferous Period. Examples of groups of brachiopods and trilobites that became extinct are: Odontopleurid trilobites, Dalmanitid trilobites, Phacopid trilobites, Atrypid brachiopods, Pentamerid brachiopods. How did they happen?: As extinctions were mostly of tropical groups climate change may have been involved, and there is geological evidence for cooling of the global climate at the end-Frasnian event and near the end of the Devonian Period. Cooling may have been caused by a drop in the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas that helps warm the planet, so if levels fall, cooling will follow. In the Late Devonian, large trees evolved and formed the first forests. As plant life expanded, they used up more carbon dioxide in photosynthesis. When dead plant material decays, carbon dioxide is returned to the atmosphere, but some plant material (e.g., leaves) will be buried in swamps, lakes and rivers. This buried plant material removes carbon permanently from the atmosphere and often forms coal. When we mine coal and burn it we return carbon dioxide to the atmosphere and warm the planet.

(#4: END-ORDOVICIAN): When did it happen?: There were two distinct extinctions roughly a million years apart. The first of these began about 443 million years ago. Together, these extinctions may have removed about 85 percent of species of marine animals. Who became extinct?: All of the major animal groups of the Ordovician oceans survived, including trilobites, brachiopods, corals, crinoids and graptolites, but each lost important members. Widespread families of trilobites disappeared and graptolites came close to total extinction. Examples of fossil groups that became extinct at the end-Ordovician extinction: Trilobite family Trinucleidae, Trilobite family Bathyuridae, Brachiopod genus Thaerodonta, Brachiopod genus Plaesiomys, Graptolite family Climacograptidae, Graptolite family Diplograptidae. What caused the extinction? The evidence indicates that climate change caused the extinctions. A major ice age is known to have occurred in the southern hemisphere and climates cooled world-wide. The first wave of extinctions happened as the climate became colder and a second pulse occurred as climates warmed at the end of the ice age. Reconstruction of Late Ordovician global geography (southern hemisphere), showing the south polar icecap (white). The Ordovician continent of Laurentia corresponds to most of present day North America; Baltica included part of modern western Europe. Gondwana was a super-continent composed of most of the major modern continents.

(#5: END CRETACEOUS): When did it happen?: The extinction occurred at the end of the Cretaceous Period, about 65.5 million years ago. Who became extinct?: In addition to the non-avian dinosaurs, vertebrates that were lost at the end of the Cretaceous include the flying pterosaurs, and the mosasaurs, plesiosaurs and ichthyosaurs of the oceans. Important marine invertebrates also disappeared, including ammonites, groups of cephalopods and some bivalves, such as the reef-building rudists and some relatives of modern oysters. Examples of invertebrate groups that became extinct at the end_Cretaceous event. tes that disappeared at the end-Cretaceous extinction. Ammonite (Cephalopod), gryphaeid oyster (Bivalv), Inoceramid (Bivalve). What caused the extinction?: Several lines of geological evidence indicate that an asteroid that was as much as 10 kilometers (6 miles) in diameter hit the Earth at the end of the Cretaceous Period. This evidence includes an ancient impact crater in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico (now filled in by younger rocks) that dates to the time of the extinction. The impact would have produced an enormous dust cloud that would have risen up into the atmosphere and encircled the planet. The dust cloud greatly reduced the amount of sunlight reaching the Earth’s surface and prevented photosynthesis by plants on land and plankton in the oceans. As plants and plankton died, extinctions expanded up the food chain, eliminating herbivores and carnivores. If that was not bad enough, dust and debris falling back to Earth was hot and may have triggered widespread wildfires. There is some debate over whether the asteroid was the sole cause of the extinction or whether other factors were also involved. Towards the end of the Cretaceous, volcanic activity in India produced lava flows over a vast area. Some paleontologists and geologists have suggested that gases (e.g., sulfur dioxide; carbon dioxide) released by the volcanoes might have altered the climate. Others point to geological evidence for a fall in sea level that would have reduced the area of shallow seas and, possibly, coastal plains.

Image result for end cretaceous extinction

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS:

The characteristics of the five mass extinctions described above show that the two essential things that they all have in common are signficant global geological upheaval involving enormous amounts of energy and time scales of millions of years. Humans appeared on earth 66 million years ago and we could have been a creation of the End Cretaceous Extinction event but we surely could not have caused it. Human civilization did not appear until this Holocene interglacial about 8,000 years ago and the industrialization of human civilization did not occur until 100 years ago. The time scale needed for mass extinction events excludes any role for humans and the geological nature of these events also excludes any significant role for humans. That humans are causing a sixth mass extinction in the sequence of the five described above is a fanciful idea of extreme environmentalism but not credible.

It should also be noted that published research papers on the coming of a human caused mass extinction have two things in common – they are published by the same journal (PNAS) and they always include a common co-author (Paul Ehrlich). In terms of Ehrlich’s failed population bomb hypothesis and his obsession with human population and climate change, his interest in the theory of a human caused sixth mass extinction can be understood in terms of his obsession with the imminent end of the humans.

It is possible that the sixth mass extinction idea derives from a need in climate science to inject additional fear into the fear based activism against fossil fuels that is not going well for them. The need for climate change science to include a sixth mass extinction in its fear porfolio is also seen in the way the 5 great mass extinctions are now described. These descriptions include the idea that the planetary scale geological holocaust had increased or decreased atmospheric CO2 and had thereby caused global warming or global cooling – in other words a role for AGW-like climate change is inserted.

We therefore agree with the presentation at the annual meeting of the Geological Society of America by Professor Douglas Erwin that the sixth mass extinction is a fanciful extension of the climate change discussion with imagination but without substance.

Image result for Smithsonian paleontologist Doug Erwin

OUR OBSESSION WITH A COMING HUMAN CAUSED MASS EXTINCTION IS BEST UNDERSTOOD IN THE CONTEXT OF THE WOKE WORRYWARTISM OF THE WOKE AND ENVIRONMENTISM HUMANS THAT USED TO BE RATIONAL ONCE UPON A TIME.

RELATED POST#7: THE INSIGNIFICANCE OF HUMANS ON A PLANETARY SCALE

LINK: https://tambonthongchai.com/2020/03/30/the-humans-must-save-the-planet/

SUMMARY OF THIS POST:

GigToDo v1.5 Update - Pixinal Studio

22/2/2022 UPDATE

YET ANOTHER CLIMATE SCIENCE EXTINCTION SCARE IN THE HEELS OF THE ONES DISCUSSED ABOVE.

LINK TO SOURCE: https://www.iflscience.com/environment/earths-sixth-mass-extinction-begun-argue-researchers/

WHAT THE IFLSCIENCE ARTICLE SAYS

Earth’s Sixth Mass Extinction Has Begun, Argue Researchers. The five previous mass extinction events in our planet’s history have all been caused by dramatic natural phenomena, yet the authors of a new study claim that a sixth great die-off is now in progress and that this time, humans are to blame. Writing in the journal Biological Reviews, the researchers estimate that up to 13 percent of all invertebrate species may have become extinct in the last 500 years, and warn that the onus is now on us to take action in order to avoid a catastrophic decline in biodiversity.According to the authors, the true extent of the current predicament is somewhat masked by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species, which gives the impression that the present rate of species loss remains in line with the background rate. “However, the Red List is heavily biased,” write the researchers. “Almost all birds and mammals but only a minute fraction of invertebrates have been evaluated against conservation criteria. Incorporating estimates of the true number of invertebrate extinctions leads to the conclusion that the rate vastly exceeds the background rate and that we may indeed be witnessing the start of the Sixth Mass Extinction,” they say.To prove their point, the study authors reference a 2015 study on molluscs which concluded that around seven percent of land snail species have become extinct since 1500. Assuming that this figure represents extinction rates for all non-marine invertebrates and that such species outnumber marine invertebrates by about three to one, the researchers calculate that between 7.5 and 13 percent of the two million known species have now disappeared. In absolute figures, this equates to between 150,000 and 260,000 extinctions, which is significantly higher than 882 species listed as extinct by the Red List. Admittedly, this finding is based on a “bold assumption” and has not been definitively verified, yet the researchers nonetheless conclude that a sixth mass extinction event “has surely begun, and is being caused by human activities. While this statement may sound alarming, the authors go on to explain that there is no evidence to suggest that marine species are being affected in the same way as land-based invertebrates, while plants also appear to have been spared from the present crisis. Summing up the need for mankind to assume responsibility for averting this impending disaster, study author Robert Cowie explained that “humans are the only species capable of manipulating the biosphere on a large scale,” and that “we are the only species that has conscious choice regarding our future and that of Earth’s biodiversity. The argument that our actions and their consequences are simply part of the natural evolution of life on Earth, therefore, doesn’t wash with the researchers. On the contrary, Cowie warned that “denying the crisis, accepting it without reacting, or even encouraging it constitutes an abrogation of humanity’s common responsibility and paves the way for Earth to continue on its sad trajectory towards a Sixth Mass Extinction.

CONCLUSION:

CLIMATE SCIENCE FEARMONGERING WITH EXTREME WEATHER, FLOODS, DROUGHTS, POLAR ICE MELT, SEA LEVEL RISE, TROPICAL CYCLONES, HEAT WAVES, AND WILDFIRES, AND SUCH IS NOT WORKING OUT. THE PEOPLE AREN’T SCARED ENOUGH TO LISTEN TO THEM. CLIMATE SCIENCE NEEDS A NEW STRATEGY TO SCARE THE HELL OUT OF US AND TO FINALLY SCARE US INTO BEING MORE OBEDIENT WHEN CLIMATE SCIENTISTS ORDER US TO STOP BURNING FOSSIL FUELS. CAPICHE???

Stream Capiche by MikeyDude | Listen online for free on SoundCloud

SO PLEASE BE OBEDIENT AND DO WHAT CLIMATE SCIENTISTS TELL US TO DO FOR THEY ARE THE SCIENTISTS AND THEY KNOW ALL ABOUT THINGS LIKE CLIMATE AND MASS EXTINCTIONS.

THANK YOU

Obedient Images, Stock Photos & Vectors | Shutterstock
Dog-Training Session - Obedient Paws | Groupon

BlackRock’s Larry Fink: Climate policies are about profits, not being ‘woke. Investment fund manager says firms that do not plan for a carbon-free future risk being left behind.

Fink said businesses, cities and countries that do not plan for a carbon-free future risked being left behind. He argued that the pursuit of long-term returns was the main driver behind climate policies, “We focus on sustainability not because we’re environmentalists, but because we are capitalists and fiduciaries to our clients.” Yet, West Virginia’s Treasury investment board would no longer use a BlackRock fund, after the fund manager urged companies to cut their carbon emissions to net zero by 2050. Fink wrote that It is through effective stakeholder capitalism that capital is efficiently allocated, companies achieve durable profitability, and value is created and sustained over the long term. Make no mistake, the fair pursuit of profit is still what animates markets; and long-term profitability is the measure by which markets will ultimately determine your company’s success.”

After Fink wrote two years ago that climate risk was an investment risk and that the firm would put sustainability at the heart of its investment decisions, many companies set out plans to become carbon-neutral. BlackRock had previously been criticised for not pushing hard enough on the issue. Last spring, BlackRock reportedly threw its weight behind a shareholder campaign to oust several directors on the board of the US oil giant ExxonMobil to help push the oil company towards a greener strategy.

Fink predicted that the next 1,000 unicorns won’t be search engines or social media companies, they’ll be sustainable, scalable innovators that help the world decarbonise and make the energy transition.

RESPONSE TO LARRY FINK : LINK: https://tambonthongchai.com/2021/02/17/the-market-for-energy/

IF LARRY BELIEVES IN MARKET BASED SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS HE SHOULD SEEK A MARKET BASED SOLUTION TO THE CLIMATE PROBLEM. DETAILS BELOW.

THE MARKET FOR ENERGY PICKS WINNERS AND DRIVES EVOLUTION IN ENERGY TECHNOLOGYIn the history of energy that drove human progress since the Neolithic Revolution from human power, animal power, the invention of the wheel, water wheels, windmills, the combustion of carbon based fuels, and nuclear power, the evolution of energy technology was orderly and progressive. These changes were driven by ideas and innovations in a market economy. The dynamics of a market for energy that selects winners and losers is the evolutionary process that gave us the fossil fueled economy we live in.

However, certain downsides to fossil fuels were identified in the 1960s when smog, oil spills, acid rain, and other environmental issues emerged as serious downsides to fossil fuels from both human welfare and ecology points of view. The 1960s hippie movement against fossil fuels, described in a related post [LINK] was a product of these weaknesses in fossil fuel energy.

These environmental weaknesses of fossil fuels spearheaded the renewable energy movement more than 50 years ago with innovations in wind, solar, tidal, and geothermal energy. However, in the market for energy, even as renewable energy was being developed and implemented, fossil fuels regained the upper hand with technological innovations needed to overcome environmental laws enforced by the newly formed Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The acid rain story, presented in a related post [LINK] , is instructive in this historical context.

These innovations by the fossil fuel industry solved the smog, the acid rain, and oil spill problems and weakened the case against fossil fuels. At the same time, the widespread implementation of renewables revealed their operational weaknesses in terms of intermittency, and power output variability not under human control, the need for fossil fueled backup power, and high maintenance cost. As a result, renewables could not compete with the new improved fossil fuel energy product free of smog and acid rain. Wind, solar, tidal, and geothermal waned and retreated into a near death experience. This left the large and growing environmental movement against fossil fuels in shock because it had seemed for a time that the war against fossil fuels had been won and that clean green renewables were the future of energy.

The rise of fear based climate change environmentalism against fossil fuels is best understood in this context. As described in the related post [LINK] , fear based climate change is preached by climate scientists and activist with horrific predictions of extreme heat, the collapse of polar ice sheets, catastrophic sea level rise, extreme weather in terms of storms, droughts, floods, heat waves, forest fires, mass extinctions, and the collapse of civilization. Even the phraseology to describe global warming and climate change has turned into global heating and climate crisis or climate emergency. The fear is then further extended to the whole of the planet with the assessment that if we continue to burn fossil fuels it will be the end of life on earth and the end of the the planet itself.

At issue is the use of fossil fuels because all of these fearful things are described as the effect of burning fossil fuels. We are told that burning fossil fuels creates CO2 from very old carbon from under the ground that does not belong in today’s atmosphere. And that when this old CO2 is released into the atmosphere it causes atmospheric CO2 to rise [LINK]  and that in turn causes warming (or heating) by way of the greenhouse effect of CO2 . And that therefore, the only solution to the global heating crisis is to take “climate action” and that means to stop using fossil fuels and move the world’s energy infrastructure to wind and solar renewables.

We propose that the interpretation of this argument as a rationale for moving the world’s energy infrastructure from fossil fuels to wind and solar renewables is that there was no rational case for renewables because of their operational drawbacks particularly in terms of intermittency and unreliability. The theory of catastrophic climate change was needed to force the issue with fear based activism against fossil fuels having failed to compete in the market for energy.

Belatedly, after more than two decades of forced implementation of a flawed energy model with fear based activism against fossil fuels, climate science now boasts that the technologies such as TES, PCM, and PHES are currently in development and that these technologies hold the promise of solving the unreliability and intermittency problem of wind and solar renewable energy.

In the context of the history of the cart before the horse forced implementation of wind and solar renewables with fear based activism, the promising developments for reliable wind and solar renewables after the fact reveals the fallacy of forced fear based activism as a method for promoting renewables. A technology still under development and not ready for the market was thus imposed with activism.

This grotesque history of the attempt to force an energy transition with an incomplete and yet undeveloped technology is revealed as yet another criminal failure in a poorly thought out activism against fossil fuels before the alternative energy technology development was complete and before the technology was at hand.

In the context of the admission at this late stage in the climate movement that technologies for reliability of renewables are still in development, the fear mongering lies used to push an incomplete energy technology cannot be understood as business decisions in the contgext of how the economy works. It is, rather, a crime against humanity.

IN THE MARKET ECONOMY, INNOVATERS SHOULD JUST BRING THEIR INNOVATIONS TO THE MARKET WHERE THE MARKET FOR ENERGY WILL SELECT WINNERS AND LOSERS. IN THIS CONTEXT, THE NEED FOR FEAR BASED ACTIVISM AGAINST THE COMPETITION IN THE MARKET FOR ENERGY EXPOSES THE UGLY UNDERSIDE OF CLIMATE CHANGE. THE INNOVATIONS ON OFFER THAT NEED FEAR BASED ACTIVISM TO SELL ARE THUS EXPOSED AS INNOVATIONS THAT CANNOT COMPETE IN THE MARKET FOR ENERGY. QED.

MORE EVIDENCE THAT THE CLIMATE CHANGE MOVEMENT IS NOT A MARKET BASED FINANCE ISSUE IS THE VEHEMENT OPPOSITION BY CLIMATE ACTIVISTS TO THE WAY OUR CAPITALISM ECONOMY WORKS-AS SEEN IN THE LINKED DOCUMENTS BELOW.

LINK#1: https://tambonthongchai.com/2021/09/09/creative-climate-activism/

LINK#2: https://tambonthongchai.com/2021/05/16/grantham-institute-climate-change/

ABSTRACT:

THE PRESENTATION BY THE GRANTHAM INSTITUTE MAKES THE CASE THAT CLIMATE CHANGE IS AN ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE AND THAT OUR UNDERSTANDING OF FINANCE AND ECONOMICS IS INCOMPLETE AND DANGEROUSLY FLAWED WHEN ECONOMICS IS UNDERSTOOD IN THE ABSENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS.

THIS ARGUMENT IMPLIES THAT CAPITALISM AS PRACTICED IS A DANGEROUS TOOL THAT IS SHORT TERM AND WITH ASSUMPTIONS THAT EXCLUDE NATURE. THE POINT OF THIS PRESENTATION IN THE CLIMATE CHANGE CONTEXT IS THE IMPLICATION THAT CLIMATE CHANGE IS A CREATIION OF CAPITALISM AND THAT THESE KINDS OF THINGS WILL CONTINUE TO HAPPEN IF WE DON’T FIX OUR ECONOMICS SYSTEM AND THAT WE CAN AND MUST FIX OUR ECONOMICS SYSTEM WITH AN ECO WACKO AGENDA INSERTED INTO ECONOMICS AND FINANCE TO INCLUDE NATURE AND THE PLANET BECAUSE WE ARE PART OF NATURE. THESE CHANGES TO OUR ECONOMICS SYSTEM ARE NEEDED SO THAT WE DON’T END UP DESTROYING THE PLANET.

YET WHAT WE SEE TODAY IS THAT EVEN AFTER MORE THAN 400 YEARS OF CAPITALISM AND MORE THAN A CENTURY OF CLASSICAL ECONOMICS WHAT WE FIND IN THE WORLD TODAY IS THAT THE HIGHEST QUALITY OF LIFE ON THE PLANET, LONELINESS OR NO, IS FOUND IN THESE SOCIETIES.

AS FOR THE ASSUMPTION THAT THE POPULATION, WEALTH, POWER, AND REACH OF HUMANS ON THIS PLANET IS NOW SO GREAT THAT THE PLANET HAS REACHED A NEW STATE CALLED THE ANTHROPOCENE WHERE THE WORLD’S NATURAL SYSTEMS ARE AT RISK OF BEING OVERWHELMED AND DESTROYED BY THE ENORMOUS REACH AND POWER OF THE HUMANS THAT NOW CONTOL PLANET, WE NOTE IN A RELATE POST THAT THIS HUMAN CONTROLLED STATE OF THE PLANET IS AN IMPOSSIBILITY.

LINK: https://tambonthongchai.com/2020/03/30/the-humans-must-save-the-planet/

CONCLUSION: NO SUPPORT FOR THE LARRY FINK VIEW THAT CLIMATE CHANGE ACTIVISM IS A MARKET BASED SOLUTION IS FOUND IN THE DETAILS OF WHAT THE CLIMATE MOVEMENT SAYS, HOW THEY OPERATE. FEAR BASED ACTIVISM TO PUSH THROUGH ADMITEDDLY INCOMPLETE RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNLOGIES CANNOT BE UNDERSTOOD AS A MARKET BASED SOLUTION.

Climate & Environment at Imperial – Insights from staff and students across  Imperial working in climate and environment related areas

THIS POST IS A PRESENTATION OF WHAT BENJAMIN RADFORD AND MANY OTHERS HAVE WRITTEN ABOUT WHAT ARE THOUGHT TO BE CORRECT PREDICTIONS OF NOSTRADAMUS BUT WHAT ARE IN FACT OUR POST HOC INTERPRETATION OF EVENTS IN THE CONTEXT OF THE QUATRAINS OF NOSTRADAMUS. IT IS NOT POSSIBLE FOR THIS METHODOLOGY TO REVEAL PREDICTION.

IT IS A CASE OF CIRCULAR REASONING WHERE THE QUATRAINS ARE SCANNED TO FIND SOMETHING THAT WOULD FIT AN EVENT THAT HAS ALREADY OCCURRED AND OF WHICH WE WERE NOT FORE-WARNED EX ANTE BY THOSE QUATRAINS BUT THOSE SELECTED QUATRAINS ARE THEN THOUGHT TO FIT SO THAT THOSE QUATRAINS CAN THEN BE PRESENTED IN THE CONTEXT OF THE EVENT AND THEN TAKEN TO BE A CORRECT PREDICTION OF THAT EVENT.

THIS KIND OF MATCHING OF QUATRAINS WITH EVENTS OF WHICH WE WERE NOT FOREWARNED BY THE QUATRAINS BUT FOR WHICH WE COULD FIND QUATRAINS THAT FIT POST HOC CANNOT BE UNDERSTOOD AS PREDICTION BUT AS CONFIRMATION BIAS CIRCULAR REASONING, AS IN RELIGION AND IN CLIMATE SCIENCE. SOME EXAMPLES OF SUCH FAUX PREDICTION ARE PROVIDED BY BENJAMIN RADFORD AND THEY ARE PRESENTED BELOW.


EXAMPLE#1: IT IS CLAIMED THAT NOSTRADAMUS QUATRAINS CORRECTLY PREDICTED THE 9/11/2001 TERRORIST ATTACKS ON THE WORLD TRADE CENTER. YET, WE WERE NOT FOREWARNED OF THESE EVENTS BY THOSE QUATRAINS. POST HOC, AFTER THE EVENT HAD ALREADY OCCURRED, SOME QUATRAINS WERE FOUND THAT COULD BE INTERPRETED IN TERMS OF THE 911 EVENTS. THAT POST HOC COMFIRMATION BIAS FIT IS NOT PREDICTION BUT CIRCULAR REASONING. HERE IS THE QUATRAIN THAT WAS FOUND TO FIT POST HOC: THIS LOGIC IS USED NOT JUST FOR NOSTRADAMUS BUT IS STANDARD PRACTICE FOR THE INTERPRETATION OF PSYCHIC PREDICTIONS BY THE FAITHFUL.

“Two steel birds will fall from the sky on the Metropolis The sky will burn at forty-five degrees latitude. Fire approaches the great new city / Immediately a huge, scattered flame leaps up / Within months, rivers will flow with blood / The undead will roam the earth for little time.

IN THIS EXAMPLE, BEN RADFORD POINTS OUT THAT THE QUOTED QUATRAIN IS ITSELF A FALSEHOOD BECAUSE OF THE USE OF THE WORD “STEEL” ATTRIBUTED TO NOSTRADAMUS BECAUSE STEEL WAS INVENTED 200 YEARS AFTER NOSTRADAMUS HAD PASSED AWAY.

YET ANOTHER QUATRAIN THAT WAS PROPOSED AS A PREDICTION FOR 9/11 WAS THIS ONE: “IN THE CITY OF GOD THERE WILL BE A GREAT THUNDER / TWO BROTHERS TORN APART BY CHAOS WHILE THE FORTRESS ENDURES. THE GREAT LEADER WILL SUCCUMB. THE THIRD BIG WAR WILL BEGIN WHEN THE BIG CITY IS BURNING”. AS IT TURNS OUT NOT JUST THESE VERSES BUT ONCE 9/11 HAD HAPPENED, THE NOSTRADAMUS ZEALONTS HAD FOUND DOZENS NOSTRADAMUS QUATRAINS THAT WERE PROPOSED AS THE PREDICTION OF 911 TERRORIST ATTACKS.

IN HIS BOOK ABOUT NOSTRADAMUS, PETER LEMESURIER POINTS OUT THAT THERE IS A QUATRAIN THAT COULD BE TRANSLATED AS “EARTH SHAKING FLAMES FROM THE WORLD’S CENTER ROAR AND MAKE THE EARTH AROUND A NEW CITY QUIVER. AND THAT TOO COULD BE INTEPRETED IN TERMS OF 9/11 AND AS IT TURNS OUT, NOSTRADAMUS FOLLOWERS HAVE PROPOSED MANY OTHER QUATRAINS AS THE PREDICTION OF 9/11. AS FOR THE “EARTH SHAKING FLAMES”, WHAT WERE THEY? THE EXPLOSIONS FROM THE TWIN TOWERS? AND HOW WAS THE FRENCH PHRASE NEUFVE TRANSLATED TO NEW CITY TO FIT NEW YORK? IT COULD MEAN LOT OF OTHER THINGS AND SO WHAT WE SEE IS A PASSIONATE ZEAL TO FIND AND INTERPRET A QUATRAIN TO FIND A FIT WITH THE 911 EVENT. THIS IS THE ESSENCE OF THE CIRCULAR REASONING ARGUMENT FOR MATCHING EVENTS WITH QUATRAINS POST HOC WHERE HE OBJECTIVE IS TO MATCH QUATRAINS TO EVENTS POST HOC.

THIS KIND OF MATCHING OF QUATRAINS TO EVENTS POST HOC ARE MEANINGFUL TO THE NOSTRADAMUS FAITHFUL BUT THEY CANNOT BE VALIDATED BY NOSTRADAMUS DENIERS BECAUSE DENIERS DO NOT START OUT WITH THE FAITH REQUIRED AND THEY DO NOT FAITHFULLY FOLLOW THE CIRCULAR REASONING AND CONFIRMATION BIAS PROCEDURE NEEDED TO VALIDATE NOSTRASAMUS. THIS CRITICAL VIEW OF NOSTRADAMUS BY NOSTRADAMUS DENIERS CONTAINS SURPRISING PARALLELS WITH THE CRITICAL VIEW OF CLIMATE SCIENCE BY CLIMATE SCIENCE DENIERS.

.

CIRCULAR REASONING EXAMPLE: Here, we see a comical example of the circular  reasoning flaw. Dilbert's argument to his dog,… | Logical fallacies,  Rhetoric, Philosophy

TRANSLATION: HOW TO USE THE CHILDREN TO SELL THE CLIMATE

LINK TO SOURCE: https://lifestyle.livemint.com/smart-living/innovation/this-week-in-tech-from-wordle-to-the-new-oneplus-10-111642313534874.html

PART-1: WHAT THE SOURCE ARTICLE SAYS

How do you help your child cope with eco-anxiety? A recent study has revealed that climate change leads to increased anxiety, hopelessness, worry and fear in children. Children are worrying about climate change too. Mumbai-based Sujata Nayak was questioned by her son about what he can do to stop Mumbai from drowning and being submerged in the next 20-30 years. She was stumped, she says, and didn’t know how to respond. Instead, she asked her son where he came across this information. He was researching the impact of pollution on the ozone layer and came across a YouTube video about how cities, including Mumbai, will be submerged eventually. A similar incident occurred in the Bhatia household where 11-year-old Kiara Bhatia asked her unsuspecting mother whether they would run out of water over the next few years. “I didn’t have an answer to that and was flabbergasted to see that she was worried and scared at the same time,” says her mother.Climate change, it turns out, isn’t just scaring adults all over the world. Our children too are aware and educated about the impending doom that the planet will face due to climate change, leaving them worried, scared, anxious and helpless. A December 2021 research study published in the Lancet medical journal confirms as much. According to the study, children and youth across ten countries, including India, were either very worried or moderately worried about the impact of climate change on their lives. Moreover, many of the research respondents, including children, said their feelings about climate change negatively affected their daily lives and functioning; many reported negative thoughts about climate change. Now termed as eco-anxiety, this condition, coupled with dissatisfaction with government responses, is widespread in children and young people in countries worldwide and impacts their daily functioning. Experts talk about managing this anxiety and what parents can do to channel it in their children positively. Is eco-anxiety real? Dr Sanjay Garg, a mental health specialist in Kolkata, says that eco-anxiety, though not a medical diagnosis, is being seen more and more frequently, especially in children. With globalisation, media awareness and easy internet access, the youth are significantly more aware and conscious of the environmental effect on the earth and its future. The sense of loss, hopelessness, and anger due to climate change can thus have a significant effect on children’s mental health. Dr Meghna Singhal, a PhD in clinical psychology a certified positive parenting coach, says that climate change can affect the entire developmental trajectory of a child. In early childhood, children are vulnerable to environmental stressors, and the resulting physical health problems can interact with and increase vulnerability for mental health issues. In adolescence, adverse environmental events can compromise mental health resilience. If you go to a hill station and you wake up to clear skies, your mental state is different as opposed to waking up to a smog-filled day in any metro city, accoring to Dr Debmita Dutta, a parenting consultant. She further illustrates a picture of how, when the environment is affected, our mental health gets impacted. We may choose to ignore what’s going on in our external environment and choose to move on with our lives, but the impact is here to stay. There are now contaminants present everywhere, in the air, food and water. Before we know it, it will affect the energy levels in our body and affect our productivity, motivation and enthusiasm levels. The study throws light on an important issue, on which there has been surprisingly little research. The study offers evidence on how the effects of climate change place children at risk of mental health consequences, including PTSD, depression, anxiety, phobias, sleep disorders, attachment disorders, and substance abuse. It is important to remember that a single climate event does not lead to mental health consequences but rather, it is the additive and cumulative effects of adverse environmental stressors that can compromise children’s mental health. Managing eco-anxiety in youth requires multi-stakeholder input. “Governmental policies, societal responsibility and large corporations can play a major role in leading efforts for climate change. Visible and sustained initiatives are required to allay fears of eco-anxiety,” he states.On the other hand, Dr Dutta has a different point of view. According to her, using positive reinforcements to address the anxiety can help channel it for a better purpose. “Anxiety stems from the need to change one’s circumstances. If we push our children to take action and change the existing scenario in even small ways, their anxiety will be managed better. We need to teach them to take small actions and not think that taking care of the environment is someone else’s job.” She says that cultivating a holistic perspective and teaching kids about the ‘Power Of One’ can make a huge difference. “They should see how one person can bring about change. Also, parents must remember that children are the agents of change and at no point should they absorb our helplessness. We should always empower them and tell them that they can change anything and everything. Parents play an essential role in raising environmental crusaders children. Managing eco-anxiety entails taking proactive steps. Eco-anxiety really happens because a person feels empathy and compassion for what they witness in the world as er inculcate eco-friendly habits from an early age. We must teach our children not to waste water brushing teeth and reuse and recycling items such as clothes and toys. We must show them the way by being meticulous about segregating garbage, not wasting food, taking public transport, avoiding over-packaged products, and so on. We must educate our chldren and encourage them to seek environmentally sustainable change.

PART-2: CRITICAL COMMENTARY

HERE WE HAVE YET ANOTHER PIECE OF EVIDENCE THAT THE CLIMATE ACTION MOVEMENT AGAINST FOSSIL FUELS BEING WAGED BY CLIMATE SCIENTISTS IS NOT GOING WELL AS SEEN FOR EXMPLE IN THE FAILURE OF THE COP26 AND THE SO CALLED “PARIS AGREEMENT” DESCRIBED IN RELATED POSTS ON THIS SITE:

LINK#1: https://tambonthongchai.com/2022/01/18/how-to-make-human-civilization-sustainable/

LINK#2: https://tambonthongchai.com/2022/01/01/did-climate-change-die-at-glasgow/

LINK#3: https://tambonthongchai.com/2021/06/05/the-paris-agreement/

IN THEIR DESPERATION, CLIMATE SCIENCE HAS FOUND THAT IT IS EASIER TO SCARE CHILDREN AND SO THE CLIMATE MOVEMENT USES CHILDREN IN THIS WAY IN THEIR FAILED CLIMATE ACTION MOVEMENT AGAINST FOSSIL FUELS AS SEEN IN THE DOCUMENT LINKED BELOW.

LINK#4: https://tambonthongchai.com/2021/04/28/the-new-climate-science/

Swedish activists led by Greta Thunberg march to protest climate change.

QUESTION:

If we fail to prevent the worst consequences of climate change and biodiversity loss could society, or at least humanity, realistically survive? What technologies would be needed and what would life be like?

MY ANSWER

What we need here is not technologies but a sufficient dose of rational thought for humans to come down to earth from their God like self image. We just live here. We are not the operaters or managers of the planet and we don’t run the climate system either. What on earth has happened to once rational and intelligent humans? Where did this God like self image come from?

MESSAGE FROM QUORA MODERATION

Quora Moderation has deleted your answer.

FOUND THIS ON THE INTERNET

WELL, AT LEAST I’M NOT BANNED.

NOT YET ANYWAY

LINK TO SOURCE: https://www.theguardian.com/society/2022/jan/16/finding-a-future-that-is-sustainable-for-everyone-on-our-planet

PART-1: WHAT THE SOURCE ARTICLE SAYS

Finding a future that is sustainable for everyone on our planet


Those worst affected by the climate crisis will show us the way forward – if they are given enough support to survive it first. Help us support those on the frontline of the climate emergency. Donate to our charity appeal here. Over the past month, the Guardian and Observer charity appeal 2021 has raised more than £830,000 for climate justice, partnering with four brilliant charities. As the appeal prepares to close, the charities talk about their missions and the future of the planet. We’ve almost lost our winters, the rainy season does not start on time and, when it does rain, we have too much. We want to stay here, but it will be difficult, says Abdul Zuffer. We’re in his home in southern Bangladesh, which he had to rebuild after cyclone Aila. As a rice farmer, he tells us of the struggles to cope with the erratic weather and changing climate. Half the world away, in Sweden, reindeer herder and Indigenous Sami leader Lars-Ánte Kuhmunen tells us an eerily similar story. “We have short winters now, and it rains rather than snows. It’s hard to predict. As we film him checking the herd, he stops abruptly in the snow and pulls out a calf, frozen stiff. This one was starving to death. That’s climate change. EJF works across the world to amplify the voices of those losing their livelihoods, communities and homes to the climate crisis. Alongside their powerful testimony, we use groundbreaking reports and strategic advocacy to call on leaders for an urgent, society-wide transition to zero carbon and a robust international agreement protecting the rights of climate refugees. We meet with heads of state and decision-makers across the globe, and our films and photography exhibitions have reached hundreds of thousands of people. We also advance the solutions: training and supporting grassroots activists, and working with policymakers. We need to lay out a clear roadmap to a just, sustainable future for people and planet. A key lesson of tackling environmental catastrophe is that the people worst affected are already leading the way in adapting their lives to their new climate reality. They just need the right tools to enable them to thrive and not just survive. This is at the heart of our work here at Practical Action. Our support has helped farmers in Kenya develop resilient and innovative agricultural approaches in the face of erratic weather patterns and farmers in Bangladesh to adapt to catastrophic cyclones and flooding. Achieving a global economy that has nature, people and planet at its heart has always driven us and aligns with the ethos of our founder, the visionary economist EF Schumacher. Other examples include our work in Peru with coffee farmers, in Rwanda with Yogi Tea, and in Malawi with female farmers. After the COP26 climate talks in Glasgow, this year is more important than ever in terms of ensuring financial commitments are met and inequality challenged. A better world is possible, but no individual or institution can do it alone. Only by working together can we make that happen says Eva Rehse, executive director, Global Greengrants Fund UK. The people most affected by the climate crisis are also the least responsible for it. Smallholders, fishing communities and Indigenous peoples across the world rely on natural resources and ecosystems that are being disrupted and destroyed by global heating at a terrifying rate. They are disproportionately likely to live in the “sacrifice zones” of fossil-fuel extraction, and to be affected by extreme weather events such as wildfires, flooding, cyclones and drought. But these same individuals and communities also have the power to resist extractivism, to become more resilient against the effects of the climate crisis, and to enact alternative economic and political approaches rooted in local knowledge and practice. These locally-led “climate solutions” – communities mobilising against coal power, Indigenous activists defending their forest lands, farmers taking up regenerative agriculture – are what GLOBAL GREENGRANTS FUND and our partners at the CLIMA FUND were set up to resource and strengthen. By channelling small-scale, flexible funding to grassroots initiatives, we shift resources and power to communities and movements who are often unable to access any other external support. By trusting people on the frontlines to take the lead, we help to nurture new, bold ideas that are valuable tools in the struggle against the climate crisis. Madagascar is experiencing drastic change to its weather patterns. Climate change has thrown our beautiful Madagascar into crisis. Dramatic changes to our weather patterns have increased poverty and driven people to deforest precious habitats in order to survive. We have seen a big shift in our seasons over recent years. We now experience much longer dry seasons with less rain, which has a devastating impact on agriculture and communities. When the rainy season does come, it can bring flash floods that destroy the rice fields, the main food staple for the majority of the country. This is one of the factors leading to a famine in the south, and increased degradation of the environment as people migrate to other areas. The Guardian and Observer appeal will enable us to expand projects helping local people adopt sustainable techniques to cultivate yams, a vital crop for nutrition during drought as well to improve soil quality and increase income through cash crops. We also hope to speed up seed banking across the island, collecting more endemic and precious species, and using these to skill up local communities to restore forests. At the Madagascar Conservation Centre, we document and preserve the country’s biodiversity, so crucial to improving resilience in a changing climate. We believe our projects can transform lives while protecting Madagascar’s precious biodiversity.  The 2021 GUARDIAN-OBSERVER CHARITY APPEAL is scheduled to close soon. So you don’t forget, send in your donation before midnight tonight.

TRANSLATION: WE HAVE FOUND A WAY TO USE CLIMATE FEARMONGERING AS AN INCOME STRATEGY. ALL YOU HAVE TO DO IS TO FIND SOME PITIFUL VICTIMS IN PLACES LIKE BANGLADESH, COME UP WITH A STORY ABOUT HOW CLIMATE CHANGE HAS DEVASTATED THESE PITIFUL PEOPLE, AND THEN ASK FOR MONEY THAT YOU CAN USE TO HELP THESE PITIFUL THIRD WORLD PEOPLE. THIS IS THE NEW CLIMATE BUSINESS WHERE YOU CAN SELL CLIMATE FEARS AND GET RICH. AIN’T CLIMATE GRAND???

WHAT WE FIND HERE IS NEW INSIGHT INTO THE EXTREME OBSESSION OF THE MEDIA WITH CLIMATE FEARMONERING.

HOW SWEET IT IS

Jackie Gleason, how sweet it is, Miami Beach, FL by Thomas Pollart | Jackie  gleason, Jackie, Gleason
WELCOME TO THE CLIMATE BUSINESSS

LINK TO THE BBC ARTICLE: https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-59915690

PART-1: WHAT THE BBC CLIMATE CHANGE ARTICLE SAYS

PAST SEVEN YEARS HOTTEST ON RECORD, EU SATELLITE DATA SHOW. The past seven years have been the hottest on record, according to new data from the EU’s satellite system. The Copernicus Climate Change Service said 2021 was the fifth-warmest year, with record-breaking heat in some regions. And the amount of warming gases in our atmosphere continued to increase. Governments are committed to limiting global temperature rise to 1.5C to curb climate change. But scientists warn that time is fast running out. The environmental, human and economic costs of hotter temperatures are already being seen globally. Europe lived through its warmest summer, and temperature records in western US and Canada were broken by several degrees. Extreme wildfires in July and August burnt almost entire towns to the ground and killed hundreds. These events are a stark reminder of the need to change our ways, take decisive and effective steps toward a sustainable society and work towards reducing net carbon emissions. Carlo Buontempo, director of the Copernicus Climate Change Service, explains: “The Copernicus data comes from a constellation of Sentinel satellites that monitor the Earth from orbit, as well as measurements taken at ground level. Fifth-warmest year: Copernicus data showed that 2021 was the fifth-hottest on record, marginally warmer than 2015 and 2018. Taken together, the past seven years were the hottest seven years on record by a clear margin, the agency explained. The 2021 average temperature was 1.1-1.2C above the pre-industrial level around 150 years ago. It would be easy to dismiss the latest global temperature figure as a non-event. Who celebrates fifth place in anything? If we were in a film, these annual temperature updates would be the ominous drum beat signalling the plot is darkening. They measure out the pace of change in our world. The increments may be tiny – a fraction of a degree – but the direction of travel is inescapable. And make no mistake, the rhythm they mark out increasingly sets the pace for all our lives. Think of the fires and floods that affected so many people in 2021. And now look again at what the data is telling us: the seven hottest years ever recorded have been the last seven years. We can’t say we weren’t warned. The agency said that the start of the year saw relatively low temperatures compared to recent years, but that by June monthly temperatures were at least among the warmest four recorded. Places with above average temperatures included the west coast of US and Canada, north-east Canada and Greenland, large parts of north and central Africa, and the Middle East. The weather phenomenon known as La Niña – when surface sea temperatures are cooler – contributed to below-average temperatures in western and eastern Siberia, Alaska, and the central and eastern Pacific during the start and end of 2021. Europe’s warmest summer: Overall Europe’s annual temperature was outside the ten warmest years on record but the summer was the hottest. A heatwave swept through Mediterranean in July and August, particularly affecting Greece, Spain and Italy. How hot could it get where you live? California fires threaten to ravage mighty forests. In Sicily, 48.8C degrees was reported, breaking Europe’s record for highest temperature by 0.8C. The hot temperatures in the eastern and central Mediterranean was followed by intense wildfires particular in Turkey but also in Greece, Italy, Tunisia and Algeria. And Europe also saw extreme wet weather, with huge floods devastating parts of Germany, Belgium and the Netherlands. These events were part of the same picture of weather systems disrupted by climate change. Warming gases increased: The concentration in the earth’s atmosphere of two gases that significantly contribute to climate change rose in 2021, said Copernicus. Carbon dioxide concentrations reached 414.3 parts per million last year, growing at a similar rate to 2020. Climate change is causing once-mighty rivers to dry up and temperatures to rise to deadly levels in Mexico. But scientists remarked that methane levels in the atmosphere increased to reach an unprecedented approximately 1,876 parts per billion. The growth rate of methane was also higher than in 2020 – Copernicus said both rates were very high compared to the past two decades of satellite data. Scientist say it is important to reduce methane levels because it is more potent than CO2, however it lasts much less time in the Earth’s atmosphere. The increasing concentrations of these gases showed no signs of slowing down, concluded Vincent-Henri Peuch, Director of the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service. More data about 2021’s temperatures will be released in the coming days from other agencies including from Nasa and the UK’s Met Office.

PART-2: CRITICAL COMMENTARY

ITEM#1: PAST SEVEN YEARS HOTTEST ON RECORD

RESPONSE: IN THE THEORY OF ANTHROPOGENIC GLOBAL WARMING THE WARMING PART REFERS TO A LONG TERM (LONGER THAN 30 YEARS) SUSTAINED RISING TREND IN GLOBAL MEAN SURFACE TEMPERATURE. IN THIS CONTEXT, THE OBSERVATION THAT THE PAST SEVEN YEARS WERE THE HOTTEST ON RECORD HAS NO INTERPRETATION. THE RELEVANT VARIABLLE IN THE THEORY OF GLOBAL WARMING IS LONG TERM WARMING NOT A PERIOD OF HIGH TEMPERATURE PARTICULARLY SO WHEN IT IS NECESARY TO LIMIT THE REFERENCE TIME PERIOD TO THE INSTRUMENTAL RECORD WITH THE PHRASE “ON RECORD”

ITEM#2: IT IS NECESSARY TO LIMIT THE WARMING TO 1.5C

RESPONSE: THE PHRASE “LIMIT THE WARMING TO 1,5C”, IS A REFERENCE TO THE IPCC / CLIMATE SCIENCE POSITION THAT THE AMOUNT OF WARMING “SINCE PRE-INDUSTRIAL” MUST NOT BE ALLOWED TO EXCEED 1.5C. TO ENFORCE OR TO COMPLY WITH THIS REQUIREMENT IT IS NECESSARY TO KNOW WHEN THAT PRE-INDUSTRIAL YEAR WAS AND WHAT THE TEMPERATURE WAS AT THAT TIME. HOWEVER, IT TURNS OUT THAT ALTHOUGH THE PRE-INDUSTRIAL YEAR PLAYS THIS CRITICAL ROLE IN THE THEORY OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND THE CORRESPONDING PLAN FOR CLIMATE ACTION, IT TURNS OUT THAT CLIMATE SCIENCE DOES NOT KNOW WHEN THIS PRE-INDUSTRIAL YEAR WAS AND WHAT THE TEMPERATURE WAS THEN: LINK: https://tambonthongchai.com/2019/12/25/earth-day-wisdom/ .

WHAT WE FIND IN THIS LINKED DOCUMENT IS THAT THE IPCC HAD INITIALLY SAID THAT THIS CRITICAL PRE-INDUSTRIAL YEAR WAS 1750. IN A LATER REPORT THEY CHANGED THE REFERENCE PRE-INDUSTRIAL YEAR TO 1850 WITHOUT EXPLANATION. MUCH LATER ESTEEMED CLIMATE SCIENTIST JAMES HANSEN, RECOGNIZED AS “THE FATHER OF CLIMATE CHANGE”, ALONG WITH THE THE USA SPACE AGENCY NASA, CHANGED THE PRE-INDUSTRIAL START YEAR OF CLIMATE CHANGE TO 1950. THEY CITED THE ETCW ANOMALY, {EARLY TWENTIETH CENTURY WARMING ANOMALY} AS THE REASON FOR THE CHANGE IN THE PRE-INDUSTRIAL YEAR.

THE ETCW ISSUE IN CLIMATE SCIENCE IS THE OBSEERVATION BY CLIMATE SCIENTISTS THAT THE WARMING FROM 1900 TO THE 1970S CANNOT BE EXPLAINED IN TERMS OF THE KNOWN RATE OF CO2 RISE IN THE ATMOSPHERE. A SPECIFIC ISSUE IN THIS REGARD IS THAT THE MUCH HERALDED EARLY CLIMATE CHANGE PAPER IN 1938 BY GUY CALLENDAR THAT HAD IDENTIFIED THE YEAR 1900 AS THE REFERENCE PRE-INDUSTRIAL YEAR, IS NOW INCONSISTENT WITH THE CURRENT VERSION OF CLIMATE CHANGE SCIENCE.

THE ODDITY OF ALL OF THIS IS THAT ALTHOUGH THE MOST IMPORTANT FEATURES IN THE SCIENCE OF ANTHROPOGENIC GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE THAT DEFINE THE CLIMATE ACTION WE MUST TAKE ARE WHEN THE PRE-INDUSTRIAL WAS AND WHAT THE TEMPERATURE WAS THEN, IT TURNS OUT THAT CLIMATE SCIENCE DOES NOT KNOW THE VALUE OF EITHER OF THESE VARIABLES. IN THAT CONTEXT, ALL THIS TALK ABOUT NOT EXCEEDING 1.5C OF WARMING “SINCE PRE-INDUSTRIAL” IS MEANINGLESS BECAUSE WE KNOW NEITHER WHEN THAT WAS NOR WHAT THE TEMPERATURE WAS BACK THEN. AN YET THIS SUPPOSED CRITICAL AMOUNT OF WARMING PLAYS THE KEY ROLE IN DEFINING AND DEMANDING CLIMATE ACTION.

CONCLUSION: CLIMATE SCIENCE HAS LOST ITS WAY AND NOW NEEDS THE MEDIA AND ALL THEIR FANCY LANGUAGE TO SELL THEIR SCIENCE BECAUSE IT CAN’T BE SOLD IN A PURELY SCIENTIFIC CONTEXT. UNDER THE CONDITIONS ABOVE, THE CLAIM THAT THE AMOUNT OF WARMING MUST NOT BE ALLOWED TO EXCEED 1.5C SINCE PRE-INDUSTRIAL HAS NO MEANING AND NO INTERPRETATION..

Three Stooges 3D Anaglyph cards - Topic

CLIMATE SCIENTISTS ALSO TELL US THAT THE CURRENT WARMING CYCLE STARTED WHEN THE LITTLE ICE AGE ENDED BUT THEY DON’T KNOW EXACTLY WHEN OR HOW THAT HAPPENED. DETAILS IN A RELATED POST: https://tambonthongchai.com/2018/10/23/a-natural-recovery-from-the-lia/

A FURTHER NOTE IN THIS REGARD IS THAT INTERGLACIAL WARMING AND COOLING CYCLES ARE NATURAL SUCH THAT HUMAN CAUSE CANNOT BE ASSSUMED BUT RATHER SIGNIFICANT EVIDENCE FOR SUCH CAUSATION MUST BE PROVIDED.

RELATED POST#1: https://tambonthongchai.com/2022/01/05/holocene-global-warming-and-climate-change-cycles/

RELATED POST#2: https://tambonthongchai.com/2021/11/09/the-issue-is-human-cause/

1/16/2022 NEWS MEDIA REPORTS ON THE COMING CLIMATE APOCALYPSE AND ARMAGEDDON

MEDIA ARMAGEDDON#1: CNN BUSINESS: LINK: https://edition.cnn.com/2022/01/14/energy/iea-electricity-climate/index.html

A report published Friday by the International Energy Agency found that global demand for electricity surged 6% in 2021, fueled by a colder winter and the dramatic economic rebound from the pandemic. That drove both prices and carbon emissions to new records. The growth in demand was particularly intense in China, where it jumped by about 10%. This report provides a stark warning for the future.
Electricity has a crucial role to play in the fight against climate change as countries ditch fossil fuels and more battery-powered cars hit the road. But so far, renewable sources of electricity, as opposed to power stations that burn coal or natural gas, haven’t kept up. India’s richest man is pouring more than $80 billion into green energy but renewable electricity grew by only 6% globally last year, while coal-fired generation grew 9%. Carbon dioxide emissions from power generation rose 7% as a result, reaching an all-time high after declining the previous two years. These statistics highlight how far off track we are from a pathway to net zero emissions by 2050. They also underscore the massive changes needed for the electricity sector to decarbonize. In the United States, coal-fired electricity generation spiked by 19% in 2021. The output from coal expected to decline by about 6% a year between 2022 and 2024. There’s some good news: Rapid expansion of renewable energy capacity should be enough to cover the vast majority of the growth in global electricity demand through 2024 but emissions will remain high. Emissions from the power sector will “remain around the same level from 2021 to 2024,” even though they need to decline “sharply” for the world to limit global warming to 1.5C and avoid the worst effects of climate change. OMG! OMG!

MEDIA ARMAGEDDON#2: THE INDEPENDENT: LINK: https://www.independent.co.uk/climate-change/news/iter-nuclear-fusion-magnet-energy-b1989102.html

<img src="https://static.independent.co.uk/2022/01/08/01/S6_HalfWrap_117_W.jpeg?width=982&height=726&auto=webp&quality=75&quot; alt="<p>A technician works on one of the electromagnets that will power ITER

Is a $22bn giant magnet the ‘holy grail’ of clean energy? Dozens of nations have staked huge sums – and decades of work – on a nuclear fusion project they hope can play a key role in ending the climate crisis. But is the ITER programme more than a pipe dream? Josh Marcus reports from California

There are wild and wondrous things going on inside of ITER, a 23,000-tonne, 35-nation nuclear experiment under construction in France. At its core, plasma will be heated to 150 million degrees Celsius, 10 times the temperature of the core of the sun, hot enough to melt diamonds and rotating faster than the speed of sound, causing hydrogen ions to fuse and release massive amounts of energy. This is an initiative first proposed in 1985 by Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev. The goal here is for the nations of the world to collaborate on obtaining a source of nuclear energy that is “essentially inexhaustible, for the benefit for mankind. ITER is a giant donut-shaped vacuum chamber, using coils of superconducting tin and niobium to generate an astoundingly powerful magnetic “bottle” containing a “soup” of ions in which fusion occurs, creating the “holy grail” of nuclear reactions. ITER means “the way” in Latin. To the nations that back it – members of the European Union, the UK, Switzerland, China, India, Japan, South Korea, Russia and the US – this $22bn experiment is a moonshot solution to cut our suicidal reliance on fossil fuels. If ITER works, it will be the first fusion device in history to produce a net energy gain, producing 10 times more power than it needs to function, all without the dangerous waste of its cousin nuclear fission, which powers contemporary nuclear plants. To its critics, ITER is a spectacular waste of time, money, and political clout, when the planetary clock has nearly run out.


MEDIA ARMAGEDDON#3: YAHOO NEWS: LINK: https://news.yahoo.com/as-global-temperatures-continue-to-rise-climate-anxiety-will-be-a-growing-issue-for-young-people-therapists-warn-100035183.html

As global temperatures continue to rise, climate anxiety will be a growing issue for young people, therapists warn. Therapist Jon Reeves first realized back in 2016 that treating climate anxiety would become a regular part of his job. He was then working in Massachusetts as a student counselor at Boston College, and the country was about to elect noted climate-change denier Donald Trump to the highest office in the land. “I definitely noticed that students were bringing climate change up as part of their overall concerns,” Reeves, a psychologist, told Yahoo News. “I think there was some stress that came along with the presidential election and concerns that the U.S. government wouldn’t do as much to mitigate climate change with Trump in office. Trump made a point of avoiding using the term “climate change” while in office but he also rolled back many of his predecessor’s executive actions designed to curb greenhouse gas emissions and pulled the U.S. out of the Paris climate agreement, the goal of which was to keep global temperatures from rising above 1.5C over preindustrial levels. Two years after Trump was sworn in, Reeves moved to Seattle, where he set up a therapy practice, but he quickly found that climate anxiety among young people had, if anything, only gotten worse. He found that climate anxiety is something that hadn’t started out as a focus, but it’s becoming more of one. Patients are just bringing it in naturally. Certainly on the West Coast, it’s on people’s minds, with the heat waves and flooding and especially the wildfires.”Across the Pacific Northwest, climate change pulled no punches in 2021, including June’s record-shattering heat wave, which sent temperatures to 118°F in parts of Oregon and 108°F in Seattle. Oregon and Washington reported 194 deaths due to the heat wave, while the Coroners Service in British Columbia, Canada, said high temperatures had resulted in 569 deaths. More than a billion sea creatures were also killed thanks to the suffocating heat, and a study conducted by scientists at World Weather Attribution concluded that the magnitude of the heat dome was “virtually impossible” without climate change. Climate anxiety is the new and growing field of psychiatry and psychiatric practice.

CLIMATE ANXIETY | Thongchai Thailand

MORE ON CLIMATE ANXIETY: LINK: https://www.discovermagazine.com/mind/the-rise-of-climate-anxiety

CONCLUSION:

THE CLIMATE MOVEMENT IS NOT GOING WELL. ALL THAT FEAR APPEAL AND ALL THAT SCIENCE HAVE GONE DOWN THE DRAIN. THE NEED FOR CONTINUAL AND CONTINUED INCREASE IN THE LEVEL OF FEAR IN THEIR FEAR APPEAL MOVEMENT AGAINST FOSSIL FUELS CONTINUES. AFTER 27 YEARS OF CLIMATE ACTIVISM AND 27 YEARS OF CONFERENCE OF PARTIES (COP), AND BILLIONS AND BILLIONS OF DOLLARS TAKEN BY THE UN BUREAUCRACTS TO SOLVE THE ILLUSORY HUMAN CAUSED CLIMATE ISSUE WE HAVE NOTHNG BUT MORE COPS AND MORE ACTIVISM AND GREATER AND GREATER ESCALATION OF THE FEAR OF NOT TAKING CLIMATE ACTION.

BOTTOM LINE: THE CLIMATE MOVEMENT AGAINST FOSSIL FUELS HAS FAILED BUT THE ACTIVISTS ARE UNABLE TO ACCEPT THIS REALITY AND SO THE CLOWN SHOW MUST GO ON.

FIRST THE GLOBAL WARMING ARGUMENT: LINK TO SOURCE: https://tools.niehs.nih.gov/cchhl/index.cfm?do=main.detail&reference_id=8437

WHAT THE SOURCE ARTICLE SAYS

Global climate change, prior to the 20th century, appears to have been initiated primarily by major changes in volcanic activity. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is the most voluminous chemically active gas emitted by volcanoes and is readily oxidized to sulfuric acid normally within weeks. Even trace amounts o SO2 exert significant influence on climate. All major historic volcanic eruptions have formed sulfuric acid aerosols in the lower Stratosphere that cooled the earth’s surface by 0.5 degrees C for typically three years. While such events are currently happening once every 80 years, there are times in geologic history when they occurred every few to a dozen years. These were times when the earth was cooled incrementally into major ice ages. There have also been two dozen times during the past 46,000 years when major volcanic eruptions occurred every year or two or even several times per year for decades. Each of these times was contemporaneous with very rapid global warming. Large volumes of SO2 erupted frequently appear to overdrive the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere resulting in very rapid Warming. Such warming and associated acid rain becomes extreme when millions of cubic kilometers of basalt are erupted in much less than one million years. These are the times of the greatest mass extinctions. When major volcanic eruptions do not occur for decades to hundreds of years, the atmosphere can oxidize all pollutants, leading to a very thin atmosphere, global cooling and decadal drought. Prior to the 20th century, increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) followed increases in temperature initiated by changes in SO2. By 1962, man burning fossil fuels was adding SO2 to the atmosphere at a rate equivalent to one “large” volcanic eruption each 1.7 years. Global temperatures increased slowly from 1890 to 1950 as anthropogenic sulfur increased slowly. Global temperatures increased more rapidly after 1950 as the rate of anthropogenic sulfur emissions increased. By 1980 anthropogenic Sulfur emissions peaked and began to decrease because of major efforts especially in Japan, Europe, and the United States to reduce acid rain. Atmospheric concentrations of methane began decreasing in 1990 and have remained nearly constant since 2000, demonstrating an increase in oxidizing capacity. Global temperatures became roughly constant around 2000 and even decreased beginning in late 2007. Meanwhile atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide have continued to increase at the same rate that they have increased since 1970. Thus SO2 is playing a far more active role in initiating and controlling global warming than recognized by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Massive reduction of SO2 should be a top priority in order to reduce both global warming and acid rain. But man is also adding two to three orders of magnitude more CO2 per year to the climate than one “large” volcanic eruption added in the past. Thus CO2, a greenhouse gas, is contributing to global warming and should be reduced. We have already significantly reduced SO2 emissions in order to reduce acid rain. We know how to do it both technically and politically. In the past, sudden climate change was typically triggered by sudden increases in volcanic activity. Slow increases in greenhouse gases, therefore, do not appear as likely as currently thought to trigger tipping points where the climate suddenly changes. However we do need to start planning an appropriate human response to future major increases in volcanic activity.

NOW THE GLOBAL COOLING ARGUMENT

SOURCE: STEPHEN SCHNEIDER: LINK: https://tambonthongchai.com/2018/10/23/the-1970s-cooling-anomaly-of-agw/

it is generally recognized that CO2 driven Anthropogenic Global Warming (AGW) was interrupted with significant cooling for a period of 30 years or more even as carbon dioxide from the industrial economy was being released into the atmosphere at record rates. The cooling occurred at some time after the 1930s and before the 1980s with the cooling anomaly generally described as 1940s to 1970s. The cooling trend in this period is recorded in the instrumental temperature record and in global and regional temperature reconstructions. News media archives from that period show a global fear of a return to the Little Ice Age cooling period. This1940-1970 cooling period is considered to be anomalous and contentious because it appears to be incompatible with the theory of AGW. However, it has been proposed by climate scientist Stephen Schneider that the industrial economy,in addition to generating artificial carbon dioxide, also creates sulfate aerosols as part of the acid rain issue. Climate scientist Stephen Schneider has explained the 1930-1970s cooling as a creation of sulfate aerosols and the return to warming after 1970 in terms of EPA regulations that ended acid rain and the associated sulfate aerosols. The argument presented by Schneider is that although this cooling effect of SO2 is not a chemistry issue, it is still a cooling effect of human activity that creates and injects SO2 into the atmosphere and creates not only acid rain but global cooling. What’s more, unlike CO2 warming where the higher the CO2 concentration the lesser the warming effect of additional CO2, in the casse of sulfate aerosol cooling, the the higher the sulfate concentration, the greater the cooling effect of additional sulfate aerosols.

Stephen Schneider, a leading climate expert, dead at 65
THE LATE GREAT CLIMATE SCIENTIST STEPHEN SCHNEIDER