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Author Archive

Climate change threatens lives and futures of over 19 million children in  Bangladesh

QUESTION: HOW WAS BANGLADESH DURING THE LAST ICE AGE?

Germany and Bangladesh sign €330m deal to fight climate change - Climate  Action

ANSWER:

The most recent glaciation cycle was from about 210,000 years ago to about 10,000 years ago.

There was no Bangladesh then.

There were no nation states then.

There was no human civilization then.

Image result for the paleolithic era of humans

Human civilization is a creation of the first global warming cycle of the Holocene interglacial.

The Neolithic Revolution: The Development of Agriculture - The Journey to  Civilization #02 - YouTube

FOR DETAILS PLEASE SEE: LINK: https://tambonthongchai.com/2021/06/27/modern-humans-climate-change/

Image result for the paleolithic era of humans

A close-up of the planet Venus.

THIS POST IS A RESPONSE TO THE CALL FOR CLIMATE ACTION AGAINST FOSSIL FUELS WITH VENUS PRESENTED AS EVIDENCE THAT FOSSIL FUEL EMISSIONS MUST BE ELIMINATED TO SAVE THE PLANET EARTH. LINK TO SOURCE: https://www.vox.com/science-and-health/22807575/venus-hot-hellscape-climate-change-earth

PART-1: WHAT THE SOURCE ARTICLE SAYS

“Hellscape” is the most appropriate word to describe the surface of Venus, the second planet from the sun. At 900 degrees Fahrenheit, it’s the hottest planet in the solar system, thanks to an atmosphere that’s almost entirely made up of carbon dioxide. Clouds made of highly corrosive sulfuric acid are draped over a volcanic landscape of razor-sharp lava flows. Most crushingly, the pressure on the surface of Venus is about 92 times the pressure you’d feel at sea level on Earth. “It’s really almost entertainingly, comically horrible, like some sort of cosmic deity had a really, really grumpy day and just went ‘Nope, I’m gonna ruin this planet,’” Robin George Andrews, a science journalist and volcanologist, says. Andrews compares it to being in a pressure cooker a mile underwater. “If you stood on the surface, you would be pancaked and you would melt,” he says. Your eyes would explode due to the pressure — “which would be gross,” he adds. Yet as Andrews relays in his new book, Super Volcanoes: What They Reveal about Earth and the Worlds Beyond, some scientists suspect Venus was once much like Earth, with a liquid water ocean like the ones that support life on our planet. For Andrews, the question of what happened to ruin Venus is captivating and even existential. “Venus and Earth are planetary siblings,” he says. “They were made at the same time and made of the same stuff, yet Venus is apocalyptic and awful in every possible way. Earth is a paradise. So why do we have a paradise next to a paradise lost?” Scientists know something on Venus triggered truly catastrophic levels of climate change, causing surface temperatures to shoot up hundreds of degrees. But they don’t know exactly what. I spoke to Andrews for an episode of Unexplainable, Vox’s science podcast about unanswered questions, about what could have triggered Venus’s apocalypse and why we should care about it. Our conversation has been edited for length and clarity. The podcast episode also features a discussion with Sara Seager, an MIT planetary scientist and an expert on exoplanets, or planets outside our solar system, who raises the tantalizing question: What if, despite the cataclysm, something is still alive on Venus? The origins of Venus could tell us a lot about our place in the universe.

PART-2: WHAT THE FATHER OF CLIMATE CHANGE SAYS

MORE ON THE VENUS ANALOGY BY NASA CLIMATE SCIENTIST JAMES HANSEN, THE FATHER OF CLIMATE CHANGE. LINK: https://tambonthongchai.com/2021/08/08/climate-wisdom-from-the-father-of-climate-change/

WHAT DO I KNOW THAT WOULD CAUSE ME, A RETICENT MID-WESTERN SCIENTIST, TO GET MYSELF ARRESTED IN FRONT OF THE WHITE HOUSE? AND WHAT WOULD YOU DO IF YOU KNEW WHAT I KNOW. LET’S START WITH HOW I GOT TO THIS POINT. I WAS LUCKY TO GROW UP AT A TIME WHEN IT WAS NOT DIFFICULT FOR THE CHILD OF A TENANT FARMER TO MAKE HIS WAY TO TH STATE UNIVERSITY AND I WAS REALLY LUCKY TO GO TO THE UNIVERSITY OF IOWA WHERE I COULD STUDY UNDER PROFESSOR JAMES VAN ALLEN WHO BUILT INSTRUMENTS FOR THE FIRST AMERICAN SATELLITE. PROFESOR VAN ALLEN TOLD ME ABOUT OBSERVATIONS OF VENUS. THAT THERE WAS INTENSE MICROWAVE RADIATION. DID IT MEAN THAT VENUS HAD AN IONOSPHERE? OR WAS VENUS EXREMELY HOT? THE RIGHT ANSWER, CONFIRME BY THE SOVIET VENERA SPACECRAFT, WAS THAT VENUS WAS VERY HOT, 900F, AND IT WAS KEPT HOT BY A THICK CARBON DIOXIDE ATMOSPHERE. I WAS FORTUNATE TO JOIN NASA WHERE I SUCCESSFULLY PROPOSED AN EXPERIMENT TO FLY TO VENUS. OUR INSTRUMENTS TOOK THIS IMAGE OF THE VEIL OF VENUS WHICH TURNED OUT TO BE A SMOG OF SULFURIC ACID.

PART-3: CRITICAL COMMENTARY

ITEM#1: THE TWO PLANETS ARE NOT COMPARABLE SUCH THAT CLIMATE CONDITIONS ON EARTH CAN BE UNDERSTOOD NOT FROM CONDITIONS ON EARTH BUT FROM CONDITIONS IN VENUS. FIRST AND FOREMOST, THE TWO ATMOSPHERES ARE NOT COMPARABLE BECAUSE THE VENUS ATMOSPHERE IS PRETTY MUCH 100% CO2 AND IS 100 TIMES MORE DENSE THAN THE ATMOSPHERE ON EARTH WHEREAS THE EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE IS MOSTLY NITROGEN WITH SOME OXYGEN AND MINUTE PORTIONS OF CARBON DIOXIDE MEASURED IN PARTS PER MILLION. ALSO THE EARTH IS MOSTLY OCEAN WITH SMALL PARTS OF IT COVERED BY LAND WHEREAS VENUS HAS NO OCEAN. AND BESIDES THERE IS A LARGE DIFFERENCE IN SPIN RATE. THE NEED TO COMPARE THESE VERY DIFFERENT PLANETS AS A WAY OF PRESENTING A CASE AGAINST THE COMBUSTION OF FOSSIL FUELS ON EARTH HAS NO RATIONAL INTERPRETATION EXCEPT FOR THE DESPERATION OF CLIMATE SCIENCE IN THE ABSENCE OF EVIDENCE FOR THEIR ACTIVISM AGAINST FOSSIL FUELS.

ITEM#2: THE OBSESSION OF CLIMATE SCIENCE WITH ATMOSPHERIC CO2 AS THE ONLY POSSIBLE DRIVER OF INTERGLACIAL GLOBAL WARMING CYCLES REQUIRES THAT THEY MUST PROVIDE A CARBON DIOXIDE ARGUMENT FOR THE PRIOR FOUR GLOBAL WARMING CYCLES OF THE HOLOCENE AS WELL AS THE HORRIFIC GLOBAL WARMING CYCLES OF THE EEMIAN ONE OF WHICH HAD CAUSED THE WEST ANTARCTIC ICE SHEET {WAIS} TO DISINTEGRATE. CLIMATE SCIENCE NOT ONLY ACKLNOWLEDGES THAT EVENT IN THE EEMIAN BUT HAS USED IT AS A BASIS FOR REPEATED FAILED FORECASTS OF A SIMILAR DISINTEGRATION OF THE WAIS IN THE HOLOCENE. {FOOTNOTE: GLOBAL WARMING WITHOUT FOSSIL FUELS CAUSED A DISINTEGRATION OF THE WAIS BUT GLOBAL WARMING WITH FOSSIL FUELS FAILED TO REPEAT THAT PERFORMANCE}.

NO SUCH ARGUMENT HAS BEEN PRESENTED BY CLIMATE SCIENCE AND NO CO2 THEORY HAS BEEN PROPOSED TO EXPLAIN THE MANY WARMING AND COOLING CYCLES AT 100 TO 1000 YEAR TIME SCALES THAT ARE FOUND IN BOTH OF THESE TWO INTERGLACIALS. EVEN IN THE CURRENT WARMING CYCLE OF THE HOLOCENE THAT HAPPENS TO COME AFTER THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION, CLIMATE SCIENCE CLAIMS THAT THE OBSERVED RISE IN ATMOSPHERIC CO2 IS CAUSED BY FOSSIL FUEL EMISSIONS AND IT IS THIS RISE THAT CAUSES WARMING. HOWEVER, NO EVIDENCE IS PROVIDED FOR THE ASSUMED RESPONSIVENESS OF ATMOSPHERIC COMPOSITION TO FOSSIL FUEL EMISSIONS AND THE ESSENTIAL CLIMATE SENSITIVITY PARAMETER NEEDED TO RELATE WARMING TO RISING ATMOSPHERIC CO2 CONTAINS LARGE UNCERTAINTIES AS EXPLAINED IN A RELATED POST ON THIS SITE: LINK: https://tambonthongchai.com/2021/05/18/climate-science-vs-statistics/

CONCLUSION

THE DESPERATION VENUS ARGUMENT FOR HUMAN CAUSE OF GLOBAL WARMING ON EARTH IS BEST UNDERSTOOD IN TERMS OF THE FAILURE OF CLIMATE SCIENCE TO PRESENT EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FOR THE THEORY THAT FOSSIL FUEL EMISSIONS CAUSE ATMOSPHERIC CO2 TO RISE AND RISING ATMOSPHERIC CO2 IN TURN CAUSES GLOBAL WARMING AND THEREFORE THE CURRENT WARMING CYCLE OF THE HOLOCENE MUST BE UNDERSTOOD AS HUMAN CAUSED AND IT CAN THEREFORE BE HUMAN CONTROLLED. WE SHOW IN RELATED POSTS ON THIS SITE THAT THIS ARGUMENT HAS NO EMPIRICAL VALIDITY.

COP21: James Hansen, the father of climate change awareness, claims Paris  agreement is a 'fraud' | The Independent | The Independent

‘Globally, at least 5b tons of carbon dioxide are sequestered within mycorrhizal networks each year, a quantity roughly equivalent to the amount of carbon dioxide emitted annually by the US.’

THIS POST IS CRITICAL REVIEW OF REPORTS IN THE MEDIA THAT A POWERFUL AND UNDERAPPRECIATED ALLY IN THE CLIMATE CRISIS IS FUNGI.

LINK TO THE GUARDIAN ARTICLE: https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2021/nov/30/fungi-climate-crisis-ally

WHAT THE GUARDIAN ARTICLE SAYS

If we want to tackle the climate crisis, we need to address a global blindspot: the vast underground fungal networks that sequester carbon and sustain much of life on Earth. Fungi are largely invisible ecosystem engineers. Most live as branching, fusing networks of tubular cells known as mycelium. Globally, the total length of fungal mycelium in the top 10cm of soil is more than 450 quadrillion km: about half the width of our galaxy. These symbiotic networks comprise an ancient life-support system that easily qualifies as one of the wonders of the living world. Through fungal activity, carbon floods into the soil, where it supports intricate food webs – about 25% of all of the planet’s species live underground. Much of it remains in the soil, making underground ecosystems the stable store of 75% of all terrestrial carbon. But climate change strategies, conservation agendas and restoration efforts overlook fungi and focus overwhelmingly on above-ground ecosystems. This is a problem: the destruction of underground fungal networks accelerates both climate change and biodiversity loss and interrupts vital global nutrient cycles. These networks should be regarded as a global public good to be mapped, protected and restored as a matter of urgency. Fungi lie at the base of the food webs that support much of life on Earth. About 500m years ago, fungi facilitated the movement of aquatic plants on to land, fungal mycelium serving as plant root systems for tens of millions of years until plants could evolve their own. This association transformed the planet and its atmosphere – the evolution of plant-fungal partnerships coincided with a 90% reduction in the level of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Today, most plants depend on mycorrhizal fungi – from the Greek words for fungus (mykes) and root (rhiza) – which weave themselves through roots, provide plants with crucial nutrients, defend them from disease and link them in shared networks sometimes referred to as the “wood wide web”. These fungi are a more fundamental part of planthood than leaves, wood, fruit, flowers or even roots.We are destroying the planet’s fungal networks at an alarming rate. Based on current trends, more than 90% of the Earth’s soil will be degraded by 2050. Modern industries, from agriculture to forestry, have failed to take account of the life in the soil. Despite the fact that mycorrhizal fungi supply as much as 80% of a plant’s nutrients, intensive farming practices – through a combination of ploughing and application of chemical fertilisers, pesticides and fungicides – severely reduce the abundance, diversity and physical integrity of fungal networks. Logging wreaks havoc below ground, decreasing the abundance of mycorrhizal fungi by as much as 95%, and the diversity of fungal communities by as much as 75%. A large study published in 2018 suggested that the “alarming deterioration” of the health of trees across Europe was caused by a disruption of their mycorrhizal relationships, brought about by nitrogen pollution from fossil fuel combustion and agricultural fertiliser. Mycorrhizal fungal networks make up between a third and a half of the living mass of soils and are a major global carbon sink. When we destroy them, we sabotage our efforts to limit global heating. Plants supply carbon to their fungal partners in exchange for nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus – much of the phosphorus that makes up the DNA in your own body will have passed through a mycorrhizal fungus. In their exchange, plants and fungi engage in sophisticated trading strategies, striking compromises and resolving dizzyingly complex trade-offs. The influence of these quadrillions of microscopic trading decisions spills out over whole continents. Globally, at least 5bn tons of carbon dioxide are sequestered within mycorrhizal networks each year, a quantity roughly equivalent to the amount of carbon dioxide emitted annually by the US. Even small reductions in the prevalence of fungal networks have significant consequences: a release of just 0.1% of the carbon now stored in Europe’s soils is equal to the annual emissions from 100m cars. Mycorrhizal fungi are keystone organisms that support planetary biodiversity; when we disrupt them, we jeopardise the health and resilience of the organisms on which we depend. Fungal networks form a sticky living seam that holds soil together; remove the fungi, and the ground washes away. Mycorrhizal networks increase the volume of water that the soil can absorb, reducing the quantity of nutrients leached out of the soil by rainfall by as much as 50%. They make plants less susceptible to drought and more resistant to salinity and heavy metals. They even boost the ability of plants to fight off attacks from pests by stimulating the production of defensive chemicals. The current focus on aboveground biodiversity neglects more than half of the most biodiverse underground ecosystems, because areas with the highest biodiversity aboveground are not always those with the highest soil biodiversity. Mycorrhizal fungal networks and the nutrient flows and processes they manage should be considered a global public good, analogous to clean air and water. For millennia in many parts of the world, traditional farming and land management practices have attended to the health of the soil and thus supported plants’ fungal relationships implicitly. But over the course of the 20th century, our behaviour has led us into trouble. Organisations like the Society for the Protection of Underground Networks (Spun), the Fungi Foundation and GlobalFungi are advocating for soil ecosystems, and leading a massive global sampling effort to create open-source maps of Earth’s fungal networks. These maps will help chart the properties of underground ecosystems, such as carbon sequestration hotspots, and document new fungal species able to withstand drought and high temperatures. Researchers will be able to track the distribution of fungal networks as they shift in response to changing climates and patterns of land use, much as they already do for global vegetation, climates and ocean currents. A deeper knowledge of these dynamic living systems will support conservation projects and policies that aim to halt their destruction and encourage their recovery, besides driving much-needed innovation in underground ecosystem science and technology. Mycorrhizal fungal networks have long sustained and enriched life on our planet. It’s time they receive the attention they deserve. Toby Kiers is professor of evolutionary biology at Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam and co-founder of the Society for the Protection of Underground Networks (Spun) Merlin Sheldrake is a biologist and the author of Entangled Life: How Fungi Make Our Worlds, Change Our Minds, and Shape Our Futures.


CRITICAL COMMENTARY

ITEM#1: IT IS CLAIMED THAT, For millennia in many parts of the world, traditional farming and land management practices have attended to the health of the soil and thus supported plants’ fungal relationships implicitly. But over the course of the 20th century, our behaviour has led us into trouble

THE ASSUMPTION HERE IS THAT THERE WAS NO GLOBAL WARMING FOR MILLENNIA PRECEDING THE 20TH CENTURY BUT THAT IT WAS THE 20TH CENTURY THAT BAD FUNGAL MANAGEMENT AND THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION GOT THE GLOBAL WARMING THING STARTED. THIS ASSUMPTION IS FALSE BECAUSE FOR MANY MILLENNIA, IN FACT SINCE THE VERY BEGINNING OF THE HOLOCENE INTERGLACIAL, WE HAVE HAD MANY GLOBAL WARMING CYCLES AT MILLENNIAL AND CENTENNIAL TIME SCALES. DETAILS IN A RELATED POST: LINK: https://tambonthongchai.com/2021/11/18/chaotic-interglacial-temperatures/ THESE DATA IMPLY THAT EVEN THOUSANDS OF YEARS AGO WHEN THE FUNGAL ECOSYSTEM WAS SAFE FROM HUMAN INTERFERENCE AND WHEN THE ATMOSPHERE WAS SAFE FROM FOSSIL FUEL EMISSIONS, WE HAD GLOBAL WARMING ANYWAY AND ALL THAT STRONG AND HEALTHY FUNGAL ECOSYSTEMS DID NOT TAKE THE CLIMATE ACTION THAT THEY ARE APPARENTLY CAPABLE OF.


CRITICAL COMMENTARY

ITEM#2: IN ANOTHER RELATED POST: LINK: https://tambonthongchai.com/2020/06/19/vegandiet/ WE FIND A NASA CLIMATE SCIENTIST EXPLAINING THE CLIMATE SCIENCE POSITION ON THE IDEA OF CARBON CYCLE INTERVENTIONS AS CLIMATE ACTION WHERE HE EXPLAINS THAT THE THEORY OF ANTHROPOGENIC GLOBAL WARMING IS NOT A CARBON CYCLE ISSUE AND CLIMATE ACTION IS NOT A CARBON CYCLE INTERVENTION ISSUE BUT THAT THIS THEORY IS VERY SPECIFIC TO FOSSIL FUEL EMISSIONS BECAUSE THIS CARBON IS EXTERNAL TO THE CARBON CYCLE. THEREFORE HOW HUMANS TREAT FUNGUS IS NOT A CLIMATE CHANGE ISSUE NOR A CLIMATE ACTION ISSUE.

To summarize this excellent lecture:  What Dr Griffith has explained so well is an important feature of AGW climate change theory that is not well understood and/or often overlooked in the consideration of climate action policies. Anthropogenic global warming is NOT a theory that carbon dioxide emissions in general and from all sources increase atmospheric CO2 and therefore the temperature. It is a theory specific to the impact of the industrial economy that dug up fossil fuels loaded with carbon from carbon cycles that are millions of years old. This is EXTERNAL CARBON. It is not part of the current account of the carbon cycle. The essence of the theory of anthropogenic global warming (AGW) is that external carbon from very old carbon cycles in fossil fuel emissions cause warming by increasing atmospheric CO2 levels and that therefore the amount of warming can be attenuated by reducing fossil fuel emissions (Hansen, 1981) (Meinshausen, 2009) (Stocker, 2013) (Callendar, 1938) (Revelle, 1957) (Lacis, 2010) (Hansen, 2016) (IPCC, 2000) (IPCC, 2014). At the root of the proposed AGW causation chain is the ability of fossil fuel emissions to cause measurable changes in atmospheric CO2 levels in excess of natural variability because very old external carbon in fossil fuel emissions is a perturbation of the current account of the carbon cycle. AGW climate change theory is specific to the impact of the industrial economy in terms of its use of fossil fuels. Specifically carbon cycle flows are not a factor in the theory of anthropogenic global warming or in the design of climate action policies needed to attenuate anthropogenic global warming. So for example, respiration emissions are not a factor in the AGW equation. This important detail has been overlooked by climate activists who have not studied the theory well or forgotten these details, or are unaware of these details of the theory of anthropogenic global warming. The theory of anthropogenic global warming is specific to the industrial revolution and the industrial economy in terms of the combustion of fossil fuels

CONCLUSION

WHETHER OR HOW WE TAKE CARE OF THE FUNGUS IS NOT A CLIMATE CHANGE ISSUE

Fungal decisions can affect climate

THIS POST IS A REVIEW OF A PUBLICATION THAT USES ANCIENT CLIMATE CHANGE AS FEAR APPEAL ACTIVISM FOR CLIMATE ACTION.

LINK: https://www.independent.co.uk/climate-change/news/chinese-civilisation-liangzhu-climate-change-b1965819.html

<img src="https://static.independent.co.uk/2021/11/29/07/Low-Res_shennong_cave_credit_Haiwei-Zhang.JPG.png?width=982&height=726&auto=webp&quality=75&quot; alt="<p>Stalagmites in caves located southwest of the excavation site show a climatic cause for the collapse of the ancient Chinese Liangzhu culture

THE ARTICLE SAYS THAT THERE WAS GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE 4,300 YEARS AGO THAT HAD CAUSED THE COLLAPSE OF THE LIANGAHU CIVILIZATION IN CHINA AND THAT THIS SHOULD SERVE AS EVIDENCE OF THE HORROR OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND THE URGENT NEED FOR CLIMATE ACTION.

RESPONSE

BACollapse936

4,300 YEARS AGO PUTS US INTO THE LATE BRONZE AGE COLLAPSE WHEN AN EXTENDED PERIOD OF GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE HAD DEVASTATED AGRICULTURE ACROSS A LARGE SECTION OF THE GLOBE THAT INCLUDED EGYPT, THE MIDDLE EAST AND PARTS OF INDIA, AS WELL AS CHINA. THE DEVASTATION OF THE LATE BRONZE AGE COLLAPSE AND ITS GLOBAL IMPACTS SERVE AS A CAUTIONARY TALE AGAINST THE THE CLIMATE DENIAL POSITION THAT GLOBAL WARMING CAN’T BE ALL THAT BAD. DETAILS OF THE LATE BRONZE AGE COLLAPSE AND A BIBLIOGRAPHY ARE PROVIDED IN A RELATED POST. https://tambonthongchai.com/2018/08/16/collapse/

What Caused The Bronze Age Collapse Of Civilization? (5 Theories)

THERE ARE OTHER EXAMPLES OF EXTENSIVE IMPACTS OF GLOBAL WARMING THROUGHOUT THE HOLOCENE BOTH POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE. FOR EXAMPLE, IN THE FIRST WARMING CYCLE OF THE HOLOCENE, KNOWN AS THE HOLOCENE CLIMATE OPTIMUM, A SUSTAINED PERIOD OF GLOBAL WARMING HAD LED TO THE INVENTION OF AGRICULTURE AND THAT IN TURN LED TO THE CREATION OF HUMAN CIVILIZATION IN WHAT IS CALLED THE NEOLITHIC REVOLUTION: LINK: https://tambonthongchai.com/2021/06/27/modern-humans-climate-change/ . HOWEVER, MANY OF THE GLOBAL WARMING CYCLES OF THE HOLOCENE, INCLUDING THE LATE BRONZE AGE WARMING, HAVE HAD DIRE CONSEQUENCES AND THE COLLAPSE OF CIVILIZATION AS DESCRIBED IN ANOTHER RELATED LOST: LINK: https://tambonthongchai.com/2021/10/05/a-quora-question-3/

THE RELEVANT ISSUE RAISED BY THE “ANCIENT CLIMATE CHANGE” ARTICLE CITED ABOVE IS THAT GLOBAL WARMING CYCLES OF THE HOLOCENE ARE NORMAL AND NATURAL AND THAT THEREFORE, IN THIS CONTEXT, THE OCCURRENCE OF GLOBAL WARMING IN AN INTERGLACIAL DOES NOT REQUIRE HUMAN CAUSE TO EXPLAIN. THIS ISSUE IS DISCUSSED IN A RELATED POST LINKED BELOW.

LINK: https://tambonthongchai.com/2021/11/09/the-issue-is-human-cause/

HOWEVER, THE WHAT IS BEING IMPLIED IN THE REFERENCE ARTICLE IS THAT THE IMPACT OF THE GLOBAL WARMING OF THE LATE BRONZE AGE ON CHINA PROVIDES US WITH EVIDENCE OF THE HORRORS OF GLOBAL WARMING AND THE NEED FOR CLIMATE ACTION.

HERE WE PROPOSE, THAT WHAT THE ANCIENT CLIMATE CHANGE TELLS US IS THAT THERE ARE NATURAL GLOBAL WARMING CYCLES IN THE HOLOCENE AND THAT SOME OF THEM HAD SIGNIFICANT HARMFUL IMPACTS DOES NOT SERVE AS A CAUTIONARY TALE FOR CLIMATE ACTION. THAT DEMAND CAN BE MADE ONLY AFTER EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE OF HUMAN CAUSE HAS BEEN PRESENTED.

THE ANCIENT CLIMATE CHANGE EXAMPLE IMPLIES THAT THE CURRENT WARMING CAN’T BE ASSUMED TO BE HUMAN CAUSED AND THAT SIGNIFICANT EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FOR SUCH CAUSATION IS REQUIRED IN THE CONTEXT OF THE NATURAL ANCIENT CLIMATE CHANGE EXAMPLE.

RELATED POST: THE ONLY ISSUE IS HUMAN CAUSE: LINK: https://tambonthongchai.com/2021/11/09/the-issue-is-human-cause/

EXCERPT

Residents use a boat to move in a flooded neighbourhood in Kareli Gaus Nagar area of Allahabad on August 12, 2021 following heavy monsoon rainfalls that caused the overflowing of the Ganges and Yamuna Rivers.

LINK TO SOURCE CNN ARTICLE: https://www.cnbc.com/2021/11/30/climate-change-and-geopolitical-instability-11-high-risk-countries.html

THE CNN ARTICLE LINKED ABOVE, LIKE ALL SUCH ARTICLES, PROPOSES THAT WE THE GLOBAL NORTH NEED TO TAKE CLIMATE ACTION BECAUSE THE CLIMATE IS HURTING THE PITIFUL THIRD WORLD IN THE GLOBAL SOUTH THE MOST AND IT’S ALL “OUR FAULT” MEANING THE GLOBAL NORTH. AND THIS IS WHY WE NEED TO TAKE CLIMATE ACTION.

Madagascar confronts its worst drought in decades | Africa | DW | 11.08.2021

AS IN THE OLD COLONIAL DAYS, THE GLOBAL SOUTH MUST ULTIMATELY SERVE THE NEEDS OF THE GLOBAL NORTH AND RIGHT NOW THEIR NEEDS ARE A DESPERATE PLEA TO END THE USE OF FOSSIL FUELS PRESENTED WITHOUT EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE THAT IT IS SOMETHING THAT WILL END THE RISE IN GLOBAL MEAN SURFACE TEMPERATURE AND SAVE HUMANITY AND THE PLANET ITSELF FROM THE HELLISH CONSEQUENCES OF CONTINUED GLOBAL WARMING PROJECTED BY CLIMATE SCIENCE.

Woman in Haiti

THE NEED FOR THIS ARGUMENT AGAINST FOSSIL FUELS AND IN SUPPORT OF CLIMATE ACTION ARISES BECAUSE CLIMATE SCIENCE HAS FAILED TO PROVIDE THE NEEDED EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE THAT THE CURRENT WARMING CYCLE OF THE HOLOCENE IS HUMAN CAUSED. THE ARGUMENT THAT IT MUST BE A CASE OF HUMAN CAUSE BECAUSE IT WAS PRECEDED BY THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION DOES NOT CONSTITUTE EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE.

BOTTOM LINE

THE ONLY ISSUE IN THE CLIMATE MOVEMENT IS HUMAN CAUSE AND THIS IS THE ISSUE IN THE CLIMATE MOVEMENT THAT HAS NO EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE TO SUPPORT IT.

FOR DETAILS PLEASE SEE:

LINK: https://tambonthongchai.com/2021/11/09/the-issue-is-human-cause/

EXCERPT:

Quora - Home | Facebook

QUESTION

What is the carrying capacity of Earth for human beings if everyone lived a hunter-gatherer lifestyle?

MY ANSWER

THAT THERE ARE SO MANY HUMANS ON EARTH THAT WE NEED TO WORRY ABOUT THE EARTH’S HUMAN CARRYING CAPACITY IS AN IMPOSSIBLITY AND A CREATION OF THE HUMAN EGO.

WHAT HAPPENED TO MY ANSWER

THIS ANSWER WAS REJECTED BECAUSE IT DOES NOT FOLLOW THE RULES.

QUESTION:

WHAT IS EARTH’S BIGGEST PROBLEM RIGHT NOW?

MY ANSWER:

PART-1: HERE IS A LIST IN CASE YOU RUN OUT OF THINGS TO WORRY ABOUT

LINK: https://tambonthongchai.com/2021/11/15/worry-wartism/

PART-2: WORRYWARTISM EXPLAINED

LINK: https://tambonthongchai.com/2021/11/22/timothy-morton-dark-ecology/

THE IMPOSSIBILITY OF PLANETARY ENVIRONMENTALISM

LINK: https://tambonthongchai.com/2020/03/30/the-humans-must-save-the-planet/

PART-1: ATTACKING CHESS

PART-2: CHECKMATE IN THE OPENING

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PART-3: THE PHETCHABURI CHESS CLUB

The mass extinction that might never have happened | New Scientist

MASS EXTINCTIONS OF THE PAST

Image result for end permian extinction

SUMMARY OF THE FIVE GREAT EXTINCTION EVENTS PROVIDED BY SAMNOBLE MUSEUM: LINK: https://samnoblemuseum.ou.edu/understanding-extinction/mass-extinctions/end-permian-extinction/

(#1: END PERMIANWhen did it happen?: There were two significant extinction events in the Permian Period. The smaller, at the end of a time interval called the Capitanian, occurred about 260 million years ago. The event at the end of the Permian Period (at the end of a time interval called the Changshanian) was much larger and may have eliminated more than three-quarters of species of marine animals. It happened about 252 million years ago and geological evidence shows that it may have taken no more than 200,000 years. In terms of geological time the extinction occurred quickly. Who became extinct? Important groups of marine animals disappeared at the end-Permian extinctions. Trilobites, which had lived in the oceans for more than 250 million years, were lost, along with tabulate and rugose corals. Reef building in shallow seas stopped for about 14 million years until the middle of the following Triassic Period. At that time, an entirely new group of corals, the stony or scleractinian corals, appeared in the oceans. Although they did not become entirely extinct, rhynchonelliform brachiopods, crinoids, shelled cephalopods and snails also suffered significant losses. On land, primitive synapsids (relatives of mammals) disappeared. Some estimates suggest that up to 70 percent of vertebrate genera were lost. Below are some groups of marine animals that became extinct at the end-Permian event. trilobites, Tabulate corals, Rugose corals, goniatitic cephalopods, Productid brachiopods, cladid crinoids. What caused the extinction? Warming of the Earth’s climate and associated changes to oceans were the most likely causes of the extinctions. At the end of the Permian Period volcanic activity on a massive scale in what is now Siberia led to a huge outpouring of lava. The eruptions also produced carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas that helps warm the planet. The lava flows erupted onto carbon rich rocks like coal and as they were heated by the hot lava, greenhouse gases, including methane, were also produced. The global warming that followed may have increased average ocean water temperatures by as much as 14.5°F (8°C). Much of the carbon dioxide released by the eruptions would have been absorbed by the oceans. High levels of dissolved carbon dioxide in seawater are toxic to many marine invertebrates. Also, the dissolved carbon dioxide would have produced changes in seawater chemistry that may have made it difficult for some marine invertebrates, such as corals, to grow shells or skeletons. If that wasn’t bad enough, there is also geological evidence that the amount of oxygen dissolved in sea water (which invertebrates and fishes breath with their gills) was reduced, probably as a result of changes in ocean circulation.

(#2: END TRIASSIC): When did it happen?: The extinction occurred near the end of the Triassic Period, about 201 million years ago. Who became extinct?: All major groups of marine invertebrates survived the extinction, although most suffered losses. Brachiopods, shelled cephalopods, sponges and corals were particularly hard hit. On land, casualties included the phytosaurs, a group of crocodile-like animals. What caused the extinction?: At the end of the Triassic, the supercontinent of Pangea, which combined all of the modern continents into a single landmass, began to break (rift) apart. As North America separated from Africa and the Atlantic Ocean began to form, volcanic activity on a massive scale introduced carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. This led to global warming and changes to the oceans that were similar to (although not as large) those that occurred at the end-Permian extinction. Reconstruction of Late Triassic global geography: All of today’s continents were combined into the supercontinent of Pangea. Pangea was beginning to break apart. As North America and Africa began to separate there was a vast outpouring of lava. The area of volcanic rocks that formed at this time is shown in yellow. Gases, including carbon dioxide, produced during the eruptions led to global climate change.

(#3: LATE DEVONIAN): When did they happen?: The end-Frasnian extinction happened about 375 million years ago. The oldest of the three extinctions, towards the end of a time interval called the Givetian, occurred about 10 million years before the Frasnian event. The youngest extinction happened near the end of the Devonian period, about 365 million years ago, during a time interval called the Famennian. Who became extinct?: The end-Frasnian extinction was most pronounced in tropical environments, particularly in the reefs of the shallow seas. Reef building sponges called stromatoporoids and corals suffered losses and stromatoporoids finally disappeared in the third extinction near the end of the Devonian. Brachiopods associated with reefs also became extinct. Groups of trilobites disappeared at each of the three extinctions and very few survived into the following Carboniferous Period. Examples of groups of brachiopods and trilobites that became extinct are: Odontopleurid trilobites, Dalmanitid trilobites, Phacopid trilobites, Atrypid brachiopods, Pentamerid brachiopods. How did they happen?: As extinctions were mostly of tropical groups climate change may have been involved, and there is geological evidence for cooling of the global climate at the end-Frasnian event and near the end of the Devonian Period. Cooling may have been caused by a drop in the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas that helps warm the planet, so if levels fall, cooling will follow. In the Late Devonian, large trees evolved and formed the first forests. As plant life expanded, they used up more carbon dioxide in photosynthesis. When dead plant material decays, carbon dioxide is returned to the atmosphere, but some plant material (e.g., leaves) will be buried in swamps, lakes and rivers. This buried plant material removes carbon permanently from the atmosphere and often forms coal. When we mine coal and burn it we return carbon dioxide to the atmosphere and warm the planet.

(#4: END-ORDOVICIAN): When did it happen?: There were two distinct extinctions roughly a million years apart. The first of these began about 443 million years ago. Together, these extinctions may have removed about 85 percent of species of marine animals. Who became extinct?: All of the major animal groups of the Ordovician oceans survived, including trilobites, brachiopods, corals, crinoids and graptolites, but each lost important members. Widespread families of trilobites disappeared and graptolites came close to total extinction. Examples of fossil groups that became extinct at the end-Ordovician extinction: Trilobite family Trinucleidae, Trilobite family Bathyuridae, Brachiopod genus Thaerodonta, Brachiopod genus Plaesiomys, Graptolite family Climacograptidae, Graptolite family Diplograptidae. What caused the extinction? The evidence indicates that climate change caused the extinctions. A major ice age is known to have occurred in the southern hemisphere and climates cooled world-wide. The first wave of extinctions happened as the climate became colder and a second pulse occurred as climates warmed at the end of the ice age. Reconstruction of Late Ordovician global geography (southern hemisphere), showing the south polar icecap (white). The Ordovician continent of Laurentia corresponds to most of present day North America; Baltica included part of modern western Europe. Gondwana was a super-continent composed of most of the major modern continents.

(#5: END CRETACEOUS)When did it happen?: The extinction occurred at the end of the Cretaceous Period, about 65.5 million years ago. Who became extinct?: In addition to the non-avian dinosaurs, vertebrates that were lost at the end of the Cretaceous include the flying pterosaurs, and the mosasaurs, plesiosaurs and ichthyosaurs of the oceans. Important marine invertebrates also disappeared, including ammonites, groups of cephalopods and some bivalves, such as the reef-building rudists and some relatives of modern oysters. Examples of invertebrate groups that became extinct at the end_Cretaceous event. tes that disappeared at the end-Cretaceous extinction. Ammonite (Cephalopod), gryphaeid oyster (Bivalv), Inoceramid (Bivalve). What caused the extinction?: Several lines of geological evidence indicate that an asteroid that was as much as 10 kilometers (6 miles) in diameter hit the Earth at the end of the Cretaceous Period. This evidence includes an ancient impact crater in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico (now filled in by younger rocks) that dates to the time of the extinction. The impact would have produced an enormous dust cloud that would have risen up into the atmosphere and encircled the planet. The dust cloud greatly reduced the amount of sunlight reaching the Earth’s surface and prevented photosynthesis by plants on land and plankton in the oceans. As plants and plankton died, extinctions expanded up the food chain, eliminating herbivores and carnivores. If that was not bad enough, dust and debris falling back to Earth was hot and may have triggered widespread wildfires. There is some debate over whether the asteroid was the sole cause of the extinction or whether other factors were also involved. Towards the end of the Cretaceous, volcanic activity in India produced lava flows over a vast area. Some paleontologists and geologists have suggested that gases (e.g., sulfur dioxide; carbon dioxide) released by the volcanoes might have altered the climate. Others point to geological evidence for a fall in sea level that would have reduced the area of shallow seas and, possibly, coastal plains.

Image result for end cretaceous extinction

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS:

The characteristics of the five mass extinctions described above show that the two essential things that they all have in common are signficant global geological upheaval involving enormous amounts of energy and time scales of millions of years. Humans appeared on earth 66 million years ago and we could have been a creation of the End Cretaceous Extinction event but we surely could not have caused it. Human civilization did not appear until this Holocene interglacial about 8,000 years ago and the industrialization of human civilization did not occur until 100 years ago. The time scale needed for mass extinction events excludes any role for humans and the geological nature of these events also excludes any significant role for humans. That humans are causing a sixth mass extinction in the sequence of the five described above is a fanciful idea of extreme environmentalism but not credible.

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  • Bud Bromley: Professor Munshi, I think you and your readers will appreciate this recent lecture in the Netherlands by William Happer, PhD, emeritus professor of ph
  • chaamjamal: Thank you for this very intersting comment
  • chaamjamal: https://tambonthongchai.com/2021/05/10/the-climate-sensitivity-issue/