Thongchai Thailand

Bangkok Inundated by Sea Level Rise

Posted on: September 7, 2019

bangkok3

 

 

BANGKOK & SAMUT PRAKAN INUNDATED BY CLIMATE CHANGE SEA LEVEL RISE

OMG OMG! AND THERE IS NO PLANET-B!  OMG!

 

  1. 2004, RAPID ARCTIC WARMING BRINGS SEA LEVEL RISE
    The Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA) report says: increasing greenhouse gases from human activities is causing the Arctic to warm twice as fast as the rest of the planet; in Alaska, western Canada, and eastern Russia winter temperatures have risen by 2C to 4C in the last 50 years; the Arctic will warm by 4C to 7C by 2100. A portion of Greenland’s ice sheet will melt; global sea levels will rise; global warming will intensify. Greenland contains enough melting ice to raise sea levels by 7 meters; Bangkok, Manila, Dhaka, Florida, Louisiana, and New Jersey are at risk of inundation; thawing permafrost and rising seas threaten Arctic coastal regions; climate change will accelerate and bring about profound ecological and social changes; the Arctic is experiencing the most rapid and severe climate change on earth and it’s going to get a lot worse; Arctic summer sea ice will decline by 50% to 100%polar bears will be driven towards extinction; this report is an urgent SOS for the Arctic; forest fires and insect infestations will increase in frequency and intensity; changing vegetation and rising sea levels will shrink the tundra to its lowest level in 21000 years; vanishing breeding areas for birds and grazing areas for animals will cause extinctions of many species; “if we limit emission of heat trapping carbon dioxide we can still help protect the Arctic and slow global warming”.
  2. 2007: A PLAN TO SAVE BANGKOK FROM GLOBAL WARMING’S SEA LEVEL RISE
    It has been more than a year now that scientists and climate experts sought a budget of 100 billion baht to build a sea wall 80 kilometers long from the mouth of the Ta Chin river to the Bang Pakong river to protect the city of Bangkok from being inundated by the sea that was projected to rise by 20 cm per year due to man-made global warming. RELATED POST: [LINK]
  3. 2008: THAILAND HOT SEASON WILL BE SOONER & HOTTER 
    Climate science predicted that in 2008 man-made climate change would cause the hot season in Thailand to arrive earlier than usual and to be so much hotter that parts of the country would experience heavy rains and floods while other parts will be hit by a severe drought (A hot summer expected to arrive early this year, Bangkok Post, February 3, 2008). None of this occurred. Tt was a normal year weather-wise. RELATED POST: [LINK]
  4. 2008: BANGKOK IS BEING INUNDATED BY SEA LEVEL RISE 
    The city of Bangkok is sinking due to subsidence. This is a real problem and its real causes must be addressed for a solution. It is cruel opportunism for climate scientists to use this tragedy to sell their man-made global warming agenda. RELATED POST [LINK] .
  5. 2009: SOUTHEAST ASIA HIT WITH SEA LEVEL RISE 
    It is reported that “Southeast Asia is facing problems from rising sea levels that bring more frequent flooding in coastal zones and river basins” (Thai firms not ready for climate change, Bangkok Post, January 22, 2009). It is noteworthy that none of these flooding events has been reported in the media. RELATED POST [LINK]
  6. 2009: OUR USE OF FOSSIL FUELS IS CAUSING GREENLAND GLACIERS TO MELT
    Man-made global warming is causing Greenland’s glaciers to melt at an alarming rate. By the year 2100 all the ice there will have melted causing a calamitous rise in the sea level that will inundate Bangladesh, the Maldives, Bangkok, New Orleans, and atolls in the Pacific. RELATED POST [LINK]
  7. 2009: SEA LEVEL RISE DUE TO GLOBAL WARMING IS FLOODING BANGKOK
    Bangkok is sinking at about 2 or 3 cm per year and this phenomenon is blamed for the increasing severity of floods that occur when a rain swollen Chao Phraya River coincides with unusually high tides. These flooding incidents cannot be related to global warming or sea level rise. RELATED POST: [LINK]
  8. 2009: SEA LEVEL RISE IS INUNDATING SAMUT PRAKAN, THAILAND
    Encroachment by sea water in the Bangkok Groundwater Area, that includes Samut Prakan, is a well known effect of land subsidence caused by ground water extraction unrelated to carbon dioxide emissions, global warming, or climate change. RELATED POST: [LINK]
  9. 2009: THE MEKONG IS TOAST
    The Mekong River is drying up because there is not enough snow in the Himalayas. This tragic situation was created with fossil fuel emissions that cause global warming and climate change. It can be solved by cutting fossil fuel emissions and restoring the Himalayas to their former pristine and unchanging condition. RELATED POST [LINK]
  10. 2008: CLIMATE CHANGE TO CAUSE NARGIS-LIKE STORM SURGE IN THAILAND 
    In May 2008 Cyclone Nargis, with unremarkable maximum wind speeds of 100 mph, struck Myanmar and caused a freak storm surge that went up the Irrawaddy River and killed 140,000 people. Climate science was quick to claim Nargis as an impact climate change and reason to fear fossil fuels. This assessment created widespread panic in the region with Myanmar, Thailand, Bangladesh, and India all forecasting and fearing Nargis-like storm surges. In Thailand, the meteorology department had Samut Prakarn area residents in fear for years with repeated forecasts of destruction by Nargis-like storm surges. They never came and those scary forecasts have stopped coming. RELATED POST: [LINK]
  11. 2008: THAILAND GRIPPED BY FEAR OF NARGIS STYLE STORM SURGE 
    There has been much speculation in the Thai media recently as to the surge effects on the low-lying coastal mudflats of Samut Prakarn should a storm like Cyclone Nargis form in the Gulf of Thailand due to climate change and rising seas caused by fossil fuel emissions. RELATED POST [LINK]
  12. 2008: THAILAND PARALYZED BY FEAR OF CLIMATE CHANGE STORM SURGE 
    Climate scientists say that fossil fueled global warming causes extreme weather and then waits for weather events such as Cyclone Nargis that can be called extreme, claims that it was caused by global warming, and the forecasts more of the same in that area. In the very sad case of Thailand, the deadly storm surge of Cyclone Nargis was forecast to become normal for this region and a specific forecast was made that a cyclone would form in the Gulf of Thailand and that it would cause a storm surge that would devastate the province of Samut Prakarn. No such cyclone occurred but the economic and emotional distress caused by these forecasts were probably equally damaging. RELATED POST [LINK]
  13. 2009: SEA LEVEL RISE IS INUNDATING SAMUT PRAKAN, THAILAND
    Encroachment by sea water in the Bangkok Groundwater Area, that includes Samut Prakan, is a well known effect of land subsidence caused by ground water extraction unrelated to carbon dioxide emissions, global warming, or climate change. RELATED POST [LINK]

 

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

  1. Paw, James N., and Chua Thia-Eng. “Climate changes and sea level rise: implications on coastal area utilization and management in South-east Asia.” Ocean and Shoreline Management 15.3 (1991): 205-232. By the next century, global warming due to an intensifying greenhouse effect could cause profound climate changes and accelerate sea level rise. These may have significant effects on the coastal areas of South-east Asia. These areas are densely populated and support a broad range of diversified economic activities. The physical environment of the region is briefly reviewed as well as the various socio-economic activities in the coastal areas. The physical impact of sea level rise include coastal erosion and inundation of low-lying areas, salt intrusion, flooding due to storm surges and high tides as well as habitat loss. Possible economic impact of sea level rise include the destruction of properties along the coast, changes in land use patterns, water management systems, navigation and waste management. In addition, climate changes will alter precipitation and evaporation patterns, increase cyclone frequency and drought stress which could compound the impact of sea level rise on the coastal zone.

    Some strategies for the mitigation of sea level rise impact such as zoning and land use management, erosion and flood control, water management, reinforcement of existing coastal structures and waste management are discussed. It is advisable to include climate risk factors in coastal management strategies in order to cushion climate changes and sea level rise impact attributed to a greenhouse effect.

    • Engkagul, Surapee. “Flooding features in Bangkok and vicinity: Geographical approach.” GeoJournal 31.4 (1993): 335-338.  In the Chao Phraya delta, in the past, most flooding was controlled by nature. Sheetfloods occurred in a floodplain, then water flowed into the sea by natural water ways and klongs. The way of life of the farmers and house patterns went well with nature, and there were no serious problems about flooding. Nowadays, floods are no tonger controlled by nature. There are human factors such as urbanization, land use, and irrigation systems etc. These factors caused more complex flooding in the Chao Phraya plain. Bangkok and vicinity (Samut Prakarn, Nonthaburi, Pathumthani), S of Chao Phraya delta has flooding every year, because some areas are below the mean sea level. Therefore, in any year in which there is heavy discharge from the N the result is flooding. If it is in the spring tide, flooding is more serious because the drainage system cannot work fast enough. Nowadays, the lower Chao Phraya plain is usually flooded, and severe flooding occurs every 3 to 5 years. Nedeco (1987) who studied the flood protection and Drainage of Thonburi and Samut Prakarn West has summarized the factors of flooding as follows: 1. High river stages due to high discharge from the north; 2. “Fide induced high river stages; 3. High intensity rain storms. The magnitude an d impact of flooding in the study area depends on 3 factors 1. Land subsidence; 2. Insufficient drainage capacity of klongs; 3. Autonomous pump drainage of hundreds of farm polders which discharge into klongs during rainfall. The Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA 1986) conducted a feasibility study on a Flood Protection/ Drainage Project in the E suburbs of Bangkok, and summarized the factors of flooding in that area: t. Heavy rainfall; 2. High water level and high tide in the Chao Phraya river; 3. Inflow from the north and east; 4. Progression of land subsidence; 5. Unsystematic character of the drainage system; 6. Run-off increase due to urbanization. From the geographical  nalysis of flooding in the E suburbs of Bangkok in 1980, Prasert (Prasert Vittayarut 1980) has summarized 2 factors of flooding 1. Run-off discharge from heavy rainfall in the N, rainfall in the rainy season,ie, in September, October, November and tidal effect; 2. Rainfall in Bangkok is due to land use roblems; retention areas are inadequate. In Bangkok, flooding can occur, when the amount of rain is 50 mm or higher. Past Flooding Thanom (1982) found that in 1831, the highest water level at Ayutthaya was at 5.24 m msl, which is the highest in a 100 year period. In 1917, the water Ievel was at 424 m msl. In 1942, the water level was at 5.13 m msl. It was 111 years from the first year of flooding. During the floodings in t975, 1978, 1980, 1983, 1988 and 1990 the water level was nearly 2 m msl. If the water level in the Chao Phraya river at the Memorial Bridge rises above 1.30 m, flooding in Bangkok is likely. Factors of Flooding Geomorphology Bangkok mad vicinity is located in the S of the lower Chao Phraya plain, which is situated over a large structural depression, aJ~d filled with medium to fine clastic
    • Sabhasri, Sanga, and Ksemsan Suwarnarat. “Impact of sea level rise on flood control in Bangkok and vicinity.” Sea-Level Rise and Coastal Subsidence. Springer, Dordrecht, 1996. 343-356. Long years of flood damage in Bangkok, Thailand have shown that flooding is not only a natural occurrence but also has resulted from urbanization and the utilization of natural resources. The steady rise in the mean sea water level, caused mainly by land subsidence, poses a threat for investment, operation costs and the safety level of the flood control system. The prevailing flood control scheme relies mostly on the protection from the rising estuarine and sea levels, and the estimated annual pumping costs for the Bangkok may reach US$ 20 million per meter rise. Clearly more attention must be paid to this phenomenon and the ways and means to mitigate its effects. The exchange of experience and knowledge obtained in other countries may help minimize the problems and costs of“trial and error” in the developing countries such as Thailand.
    • Wassmann, Reiner, et al. “Sea level rise affecting the Vietnamese Mekong Delta: water elevation in the flood season and implications for rice production.” Climatic change 66.1-2 (2004): 89-107.  In this study, we assessed the impact of sea level rise, one of the most ascertained consequences of global climate change, for water levels in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta (VMD). We used a hydraulic model to compute water levels from August to November – when flooding is presently critical- under sea level rise scenarios of 20 cm (=Δ 20) and 45 cm (=Δ 45), respectively. The outputs show that the contour lines of water levels will be shifted up to 25 km (Δ 20) and 50 km (Δ 45) towards the sea due to higher sea levels. At the onset of the flood season (August), the average increment in water levels in the Delta is 14.1 cm (Δ 20) and 32.2 cm (Δ 45), respectively. At the peak of the flood season (October), high discharge from upstream attenuates the increment in water level, but average water level rise of 11.9 cm (Δ 20) and 27.4 cm (Δ 45), respectively, still imply a substantial aggravation of flooding problems in the VMD. GIS techniques were used to delineate areas with different levels of vulnerability, i.e., area with high (2.3 mio ha =60% of the VMD), medium (0.6 mio ha = 15%) and low (1 mio ha =25%) vulnerability due to sea level rise. Rice production will be affected through excessive flooding in the tidally inundated areas and longer flooding periods in the central part of the VMD. These adverse impacts could affect all three cropping seasons, Mua (main rainfed crop), Dong Xuan (Winter-Spring) and He Thu (Summer-Autumn) in the VMD unless preventive measures are taken.
    • Rodolfo, Kelvin S., and Fernando P. Siringan. “Global sea‐level rise is recognised, but flooding from anthropogenic land subsidence is ignored around northern Manila Bay, Philippines.” Disasters 30.1 (2006): 118-139.  Land subsidence resulting from excessive extraction of groundwater is particularly acute in East Asian countries. Some Philippine government sectors have begun to recognise that the sea‐level rise of one to three millimetres per year due to global warming is a cause of worsening floods around Manila Bay, but are oblivious to, or ignore, the principal reason: excessive groundwater extraction is lowering the land surface by several centimetres to more than a decimetre per year. Such ignorance allows the government to treat flooding as a lesser problem that can be mitigated through large infrastructural projects that are both ineffective and vulnerable to corruption. Money would be better spent on preventing the subsidence by reducing groundwater pumping and moderating population growth and land use, but these approaches are politically and psychologically unacceptable. Even if groundwater use is greatly reduced and enlightened land‐use practices are initiated, natural deltaic subsidence and global sea‐level rise will continue to aggravate flooding, although at substantially lower rates.
    • Phi, Ho Long. “Climate change and urban flooding in Ho Chi Minh City.” Proceedings of Third International Conference on Climate and Water. 2007Flooding in Ho Chi Minh City has emerged as one of the most concerned issues which have arisen in recent years, accompanying the city’s rapid growth. The numbers of flooded locations, flooding frequency and duration have increased steadily, resulting in substantial economic and social losses. These phenomena are an integrated consequence of both climate and non-climate related factors. Over USD one billion has been invested in urban flooding control projects in the city since 1998, with additional billions expected to be spent in the next decades. Long-term planning taking account climate change effects would require non-conventional approaches. This report is a discussion of several recent studies on unfavorable effects of the uncertainties created by climate change factors on flood control in Ho Chi Minh City.
    • Nicholls, Robert J. “Planning for the impacts of sea level rise.” Oceanography 24.2 (2011): 144-157.  Coastal areas constitute important habitats, and they contain a large and growing population, much of it located in economic centers such as London, New York, Tokyo, Shanghai, Mumbai, and Lagos. The range of coastal hazards includes climate-induced sea level rise, a long-term threat that demands broad response. Global sea levels rose 17 cm through the twentieth century, and are likely to rise more rapidly through the twenty-first century when a rise of more than 1 m is possible. In some locations, these changes may be exacerbated by (1) increases in storminess due to climate change, although this scenario is less certain, and (2) widespread human-induced subsidence due to ground fluid withdrawal from, and drainage of, susceptible soils, especially in deltas. Relative sea level rise has a range of potential impacts, including higher extreme sea levels (and flooding), coastal erosion, salinization of surface and ground waters, and degradation of coastal habitats such as wetlands. Without adaptation, large land areas and millions of people could be displaced by sea level rise. Appropriate responses include climate mitigation (a global response) and/or adaptation (a local response). A combination of these strategies appears to be the most appropriate approach to sea level rise regardless of the uncertainty. Adaptation responses can be characterized as (1) protect, (2) accommodate, or (3) retreat. While these adaptation responses could reduce impacts significantly, they will need to be consistent with responses to all coastal hazards, as well as with wider societal and development objectives; hence, an integrated coastal management philosophy is required. In some developed countries, including England and the Netherlands, proactive adaptation plans are already being formulated. Coastal cities worldwide will be a major focus for adaptation efforts because of their concentrations of people and assets. Developing countries will pose adaptation challenges, especially in deltaic areas and small islands, which are the most vulnerable settings.
    • Dutta, Dushmanta. “An integrated tool for assessment of flood vulnerability of coastal cities to sea-level rise and potential socio-economic impacts: a case study in Bangkok, Thailand.” Hydrological sciences journal 56.5 (2011): 805-823.  The paper introduces a comprehensive and integrated tool developed to analyse socio-economic impacts of floods due to sea-level rise (SLR) on coastal cities, and presents the outcomes of a case study application in Bangkok, Thailand. The study aimed to capture a macro picture of floods to present an overview of the severity of flooding under the projected SLR conditions. A physically-based distributed flood model, which combines surface and river flow, was adopted to simulate the flood scenarios due to different magnitudes of sea-level rise. The input rainfalls and upstream boundary conditions of a worst-case flood event of 1995 were considered as the baseline for the modelling, based on the available records of rainfall and water-level data sets of the last three decades. The outcomes of the case study present a detailed picture of floods and their socio-economic impacts in Bangkok City under the worst projected SLR scenarios in the 21st century. The simulated results show that for baseline conditions of 1995, the overall inundation area in Bangkok may increase up to 26% in 2050 due to a SLR of 32 cm, and to 81% in 2100 due to 88 cm SLR, compared to the extent of flood inundation in 1995. The number of flood affected buildings is likely to increase by a factor of 1.5 in the 75 years from 2025 to 2100.
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    3 Responses to "Bangkok Inundated by Sea Level Rise"

    Bangkok sea incursions are caused by LAND SUBSIDENCE, which is caused by deep well pumping of groundwater. Subsidence has been going on for at least 35 years. Actual sea level rise has been relatively steady since the Little Ice Age at 7 inches a century. Look it up. Check it out.

    Is the sea level rising there, or is that plate retreating?

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