Thongchai Thailand


Posted on: February 25, 2019

The explanation of the oddity that all climate impacts are bad, that all bad things are climate impacts, and that in the science of climate impacts there is no good impact and no attribution failure in the face of large uncertainties is that climate science is not unbiased objective scientific inquiry but agenda driven to provide the rationale needed for a pre-determined climate action agenda. The climate action agenda is not made to fit the science but rather it is the science that has to fit the climate action agenda.






Press Conference at the Launch of the IPCC Synthesis Report

Press Conference at the Launch of the IPCC Synthesis Report (Tivoli Conference Center, Lumbye Room) (REMARKS, Q&A) (with Mrs. Ban) (Nesirky)


Climate change deal struck at Paris Summit











  1. THE UNITED NATIONS IS AN UNCONSTRAINED BUREAUCRACY. It is financed mostly by taxpayers from a few donor countries but the large and growing bureaucracy is too far removed from those taxpayers to be directly accountable to them. It is run by unelected, unaccountable, undisciplined, and incompetent bureaucrats. The organization’s size, budget, and scope are unconstrained. The budget funding process provides perverse incentives for these bureaucrats to increase the size and scope of their organization simply by creating multitudes of agencies and programs, and by inventing problems and environmental crises set on a global scale.
  2. The remarkable success of the EPA of the USA made it a model for environmental law and environmental protection in countries around the world (Ruckelshaus, 1984) (Andreen, 2004) (Dolin, 2008). It was in this context that renowned Canadian environmentalist and visionary Maurice Strong saw the need for a global version of the EPA that could work at a planetary level with a global reach unhindered by national boundaries (Ward, 1972). He convened the UN meeting on the environment in Stockholm in 1972. The United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) was conceived in Stockholm and soon thereafter approved by the UN General Assembly with Maurice Strong as its first Executive Director (Bodansky, 2001) (Ball, 2015).
  3. The UNEP quickly became the nucleus of a large and growing cluster of United Nations agencies, secretariats, programs, frameworks, conventions, protocols, and conferences. As of this writing they include the Montreal Protocol, the Ozone Secretariat, the Kyoto Protocol, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Sustainable Development Goals (SDG), Agenda 21, United Nations Environment Assembly (UNEA), UNEP Climate Action, and long sequence of Conference of Parties (COP) annual meetings starting with COP1 in 1995 to COP21 in 2015.
  4. Planetary Environmentalism: Ozone Depletion: For the UNEP to achieve its ambition of being the EPA for the world it needed a global catastrophic pollution problem which it could tackle and clean up just as the EPA had cleaned up the air and water in the USA. A series of events that began in the 1970s and culminated in 1985 provided them with just such an opportunity. In the 1970s, environmentalist James Lovelock, the man who had invented the idea of environmentalism on a planetary scale in terms of the Gaia hypothesis (Lovelock, 1972) was concerned about the atmospheric release of halogenated hydrocarbons (HHC) that were used as refrigerants, as propellants for household liquids such as hairspray, and as fumigants in agriculture. His concern was that these man-made chemicals did not otherwise occur in nature and that they were chemically inert. The latter property implied that their release into the atmosphere, even at modest rates, could cause dangerous accumulation. This idea was empirically verified when Lovelock found these chemicals in air samples taken in the middle of the North Atlantic (Lovelock, 1977). Nobel Laureates Frank Rowland and Mario Molina working at the University of California at Irvine were intrigued by Lovelock’s findings and described a mechanism in which the long life in the atmosphere of chemically inert HHC could transport them by way of atmospheric circulations to the stratosphere where the spectrum of solar irradiance can cause them to become catalytic agents of ozone destruction for up to 150 years after their release into the atmosphere (Molina, 1974). The catalytic mechanism involves an intermediate step in which chlorine released from HHC causes ozone to dissociate (Stolarski, 1974).
  5. Stratospheric ozone is formed and destroyed by solar irradiance above the tropics in what is known as the Chapman Cycle (Chapman, 1930) (Fisk, 1934) (Dütsch, 1979). High energy UVC radiation causes oxygen to dissociate into charged free radicals. Their chance collision with other oxygen molecules forms ozone but their chance collision with ozone causes ozone destruction; but the much higher probability of collisions with oxygen creates an equilibrium inventory of ozone in the stratosphere. The equilibrium inventory is lowered somewhat by UVB radiation which destroys ozone. In that process UVB becomes completely absorbed in the stratosphere thereby saving life on the surface of the earth from the harmful effects of UVB radiation (Beder, 1993) (Caldwell, 1986) (DeGruijl, 1999) (Armstrong, 2001) (Cullen, 1994) (Allen, 1998) (Tevini, 1989). It is in this context that we can understand the fear of ozone depletion by anthropogenic air pollution as described by Rowland and Molina in terms of the Lovelock data. If HHC emissions cause ozone depletion in the stratospheric ozone layer, the equilibrium inventory of ozone will decline and compromise the ability of the ozone layer to protect life on earth from UVB radiation. HHC emissions can thus be seen as a kind of air pollution on a planetary scale. This kind of planetary air pollution together with its adverse effects on the biosphere on a global scale was just the kind of thing that the UNEP needed not only to justify its existence but to grow in size, importance, and funding. In 1977 the UNEP initiated a new program called the World Plan of Action on the Ozone Layer. However, they would have to wait for empirical evidence that stratospheric ozone was indeed being depleted before they could get funded for carrying out such a plan. They did not have to wait long. In 1985, the British Antarctic Survey (BAS) published a landmark paper that showed that total column ozone (TCO) measured near the South Pole during the southern spring months of October and November were dramatically lower in the period 1980-1984 than they were in the period 1957-1973 (Farman, 1985). The difference was ascribed to the Rowland-Molina mechanism of ozone depletion and thereby to global emissions of HHC. The UNEP seized this opportunity to assume the role of the environmental protection agency for the planet that could save the world from ozone depletion, dangerous UVB radiation, and skin cancer epidemics (Beder, 1993) (Litfin, 1994). This was the birth of the new UN as the planetary environmental mother and savior of all mankind and of all nations. When environmentalism is thus defined as global, it diminishes the role and importance of national boundaries and of national sovereignty and advances the role, power, reach, and budget of the United Nations.
  6. The UNEP responded to the Farman paper almost immediately by convening the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer in 1985 which established the idea of an international cooperative effort against ozone destruction by anthropogenic air pollution. As expected, the Vienna Convention appointed the UNEP as the United Nations agency in charge of the program. The Montreal Protocol of 1987, the Helsinki Declaration of 1989, and the London Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol of 1990 followed in the heels of the Vienna meeting to coordinate and fund a UNEP program to ban the production, sale, and atmospheric release of man-made chemicals identified by the UNEP as ozone depleting substances (ODS) (Rowlands, 1993) (Morrisette, 1989). In 1991 a Multilateral Fund was set up for this effort and an Ozone Secretariat was established to carry out the plan. The fund greatly enhanced UNEP’s financial and political power and the size of its bureaucracy. In addition to the direct funding of more than $5 billion in constant 2005 dollars given to the UNEP to save the ozone layer from ODS, society bore many billions more in the socio-economic cost of the ban. The rush to action, justified by the UNEP using the precautionary action principle came at the expense of scientific rigor. The flaws in the conclusions drawn from the BAS data (Farman, 1985) are described in related posts on this site [LINK] [LINK] [LINK] . Briefly, the flaw in UNEP ozone chemistry is that the entirety of the Chapman ozone chemistry including the proposed Rowland-Molina theory of ozone destruction by chlorine takes place above the tropics and not at the greater latitudes. For evidence of changes in the kinetics and equilibria in these reactions one should look at the tropics or at global means and not rely exclusively on data from the South Pole. Yet, the ozone depletion crisis was sold purely on the basis of the size of the ozone hole above the South Pole possibly because the data for global means do not show any evidence of ozone depletion [LINK] . The ozone hole is a region above Antarctica where TCO is less than 200 DU. It should be mentioned that the ozone hole is not a “hole” but a region where ozone levels are considered to be low based on an arbitrary criterion. The size of the ozone hole contains both a seasonal cycle and apparent decadal or multi-decadal cycles without a clear long term trend that can be interpreted either in terms of ozone depletion or in terms of the success of the Montreal Protocol in arresting ozone depletion. Yet the UNEP along with NASA and the NOAA have used these data to declare that the Montreal Protocol was successful in solving the ozone depletion crisis many decades ahead of the time frame needed for such a success in terms of the “long life” of HHC that serves as the foundational concept in the Rowland-Molina theory of ozone depletion (Parry, 2011) (UNEP, 2007) (NOAA, 2010).
  7. Ozone is formed only above the tropics where solar irradiance is direct. The reason that we find ozone at mid and polar latitudes is that it is taken there from the tropics by the Brewer-Dobson Circulation (Brewer, 1949). Seasonal and inter-annual changes in this circulation are well known and well documented (Rabbe, 1992) (Kozubek, 2012) (Tegtmeier, 2008). Under these conditions it is not possible to interpret changes in TCO in Antarctica in terms of only the Rowland-Molina mechanism of ozone depletion. Changes in TCO due to the changes in the efficiency and extent of distribution of ozone from the tropics to these latitudes must also be considered particularly so in the polar latitudes. The evidence shows that the distributional efficiency of the Brewer-Dobson Circulation declines beyond the 60th parallel particularly in the Southern Hemisphere. In view of the dynamic nature of the global distribution of TCO and the spherical shape of the planet the appropriate metric for an empirical test of the Rowland-Molina theory of ozone depletion is the latitudinally weighted mean global ozone because only such a global metric serves as a measure of the total TCO inventory of the world (Gleisner, 2011). The Rowland-Molina theory implies a declining trend in this measure. In prior studies two attempts were made to detect this declining trend – one with satellite data and one with ground station data for TCO. No evidence of ozone depletion was found in either study [LINK] . In view of these findings, a possible explanation of the apparent early success of the Montreal Protocol is that it is a solution to a non-existent problem. In view of the data presented here and in the prior studies we would like to think that the theory of ozone depletion by HHC and the ban on HHC to save the ozone layer are derived from bad science by good people who felt that they had to act quickly in accordance with the precautionary principle. However, in view of the enormous gains made by the UNEP in implementing a program to solve a non-existent problem and in view of a history of corrupt practices at the UN (Zaruk, 2014) (Ball, 2015) (Lynch, 2006) (Schaefer, 2012) (Dewar, 1995) (Rossett, 2006) (Rossett, 2008), intentional fraud and corruption for financial and bureaucratic gains by the United Nations cannot be ruled out.
  8. Planetary Environmentalism: Ozone Depletion to Climate Change: Fossil fuels are hydrocarbons taken from deep under the ground where they had been sequestered from the surface-atmosphere carbon cycle for millions of years. Their combustion introduces new extraneous carbon into the delicately balanced surface-atmosphere carbon cycle and climate system. A perturbation of the surface-atmosphere system that can be ascribed to fossil fuel emissions is therefore an anthropogenic effect on climate that is unnatural, unprecedented, and possibly catastrophic. This observation has concerned scientists ever since the Industrial Revolution started a steep and exponential increase in fossil fuel emissions (Callendar, 1938) (Revelle, 1956) (NAS, 1977) (Hansen, 1981) (Hansen, 1988) (IPCC, 2007) (IPCC, 2014) (Hansen, 2016). The proposed mechanism of this perturbation is that fossil fuel emissions increase the CO2 concentration of the atmosphere and that the change in atmospheric composition increases its greenhouse effect. This mechanism implies that fossil fuel emissions should cause global warming, but faced with a 30-year cooling trend in the 1940s to the 1970s, NASA scientist Stephen Schneider suggested that the aerosol effect of fossil fuel combustion overcomes the greenhouse effect and predicted global cooling instead of global warming (Rasool, 1971). However, when the 30-year cooling trend ended and a warming trend began in 1976 (NAS, 1977) (Hansen, 1981) the warming theory regained the upper hand and emerged as the climate science orthodoxy or our time. In due course it became sensationalized in terms of melting polar ice caps, rising seas, extreme weather, social unrest, and mass extinctions in a New York Times article after the 1988 Congressional Testimony of James Hansen (Shabecoff, 1988) (Hansen, 1988). This event in 1988 marks the beginning of the modern era of the climate change narrative with the warming orthodoxy having survived the so called hiatus period since 1998 (Karl, 2015) (Nieves, 2015).
  9. For the UNEP the frightening new global warming and climate change narrative served as yet another planetary air pollution crisis in which it could seize global leadership and grow in terms of size, funding, and power at the expense of taxpayers in donor countries. In this case, the global “air pollutant” was identified as the unnatural and extraneous new carbon dioxide from the combustion of fossil fuels. The UNEP responded to the events of 1988 almost immediately. It saw its opportunity and seized it having tasted great success in this kind of situation in the case of HHC pollution and ozone depletion. In he ozone depletion event, it had set up the Montreal Protocol to ban the production, sale, and atmospheric release of HHC at great cost to taxpayers and to society at large and was given credit or having solved a problem that they had invented (Munshi, Latitudinally Weighted Mean Global Ozone, 2016). Emboldened by that success the UNEP would now attempt to apply the same strategy to ban fossil fuel emissions (VanDyke, 2010). The essential lesson learned by the UNEP in the ozone scare [LINK] is that taxpayers can be scared into funding new programs. The Montreal Protocol serves as a business model for the fear mongering business in which it is necessary only to convince taxpayers that (1) the planet needs to be saved from an imminent crisis and (2) the UNEP can do that job given sufficient funding, bureaucratic growth, and bureaucratic power. The credibility of this business model is underwritten by the success of the Montreal Protocol (VanDyke, 2010).










  1. Allen, D. (1998). Ozone depletion and increased UV-B radiation: is there a real threat to photosynthesis? Journal of Experimental Botany, 49.328 (1998): 1775-1788.
  2. Allen, M. (2009). Warming caused by cumulative carbon emissions towards the trillionth tonne. Nature, 458.7242 (2009): 1163-1166.
  3. Alper, E. (n.d.). The Turkish banking system, financial crises and the IMF. In The age of capital account liberalization: a political economy perspective, new Perspectives on Turkey (pp. 30 (2004): 25-54.).
  4. Andreen, W. (2004). Water Quality Today-Has the Clean Water Act Been a Success? Alabama Law Review, 55 (2004): 537-593.
  5. Armstrong, B. (2001). The epidemiology of UV induced skin cancer. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology, 63.1 (2001): 8-18.
  6. Avni, B. (2015). The long, sordid tale of corrupt UN leadership. Retrieved 2016, from New York Post:
  7. Ball, T. (2015). IPCC The Politics of Bureaucracies: Pachauri’s Bizarre Tip Of Iceberg. Retrieved 2016, from WUWT:
  8. Ball, T. (2015). Maurice Strong is dead but the damage he did will carry on. Retrieved 2016, from The Rebel:
  9. Baxter, R. (1965). Multilateral Treaties as Evidence of Customary International Law. British Yearbook of International Law, 41
  10. Beder, S. (1993). Saving Ozzie Skins from Ozone Depletion. Australian Science Teachers Journal, vol. 39, no. 3,pp. 7-10.
  11. Bodansky, D. (2001). The history of the global climate change regime. International relations and global climate change, (2001): 23-40.
  12. Bolton, J. (1994, January 17). A good year for the UN? Washington Post, p. A23.
  13. Brewer, A. W. (1949). Evidence of a world circulation. Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 75: 331-363.
  14. BUDGET.GOV. (2015). Historica tables: Budget of the US Government. Office of Management and Budget, USA.
  15. Burnham, C. (2015). What to do about UN bribery scandal. Retrieved 2016, from Fox News Opinion:
  16. Caldwell, M. (1986). Action spectra and their key role in assessing biological consequences of solar UV-B radiation change. In Stratospheric ozone reduction, solar ultraviolet radiation and plant life. (pp. 87-111). Berlin Heidelberg: Springer .
  17. Callendar, G. (1938). The Artificial Production of Carbon Dioxide and Its Influence on Climate. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 64: 223-40.
  18. Carlsson, I. (1995, Fall issue). The UN at 50: a time to reform? Foreign Policy 100, pp. 3-18.
  19. Carson, R. (1962). Silent Spring. Houghton Mifflin.
  20. Chapman, S. (1930). A theory of upper atmospheric ozone. Royal Meteorlological Society, v3, 103-125.
  21. Cheney, K. (1995, November). It’s the UN’s 50th birthday but its employees get the gifts. Money, p. 27.
  22. Climate Science Policy. (2014). Are we failing to stop climate change? Retrieved 2016, from Climate Science & Policy:
  23. Colglazier, W. (1991). Scientific uncertainties, public policy, and global warming: How sure is sure enough? Policy studies journal, 19.2 (1991): 61.
  24. Cullen, J. (1994). Ultraviolet radiation, ozone depletion, and marine photosynthesis. Photosynthesis Research, 39.3 (1994): 303-320.
  25. DeGruijl, F. (1999). Skin cancer and solar UV radiation. European Journal of Cancer, 35.14 (1999): 2003-2009.
  26. Dershowitz, T. (2013). United Nations Corruption and the Need for Reform. Retrieved 2016, from Foundation for the defense of democracies:
  27. Dewar, E. (1995). Cloak of Green. Lorimer.
  28. Dolin, E. (2008). Political Waters: The Long, Dirty, Contentious, Incredibly Expensive But Eventually Triumphant History of Boston Harbor–a Unique Environmental Success Story. Boston: Univ of Massachusetts Press.
  29. Dütsch, H. (1979). The search for solar cycle-ozone relationships. Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics, 41.7 (1979): 771-785.
  30. Ehrlich, P. (1971). The population bomb. NY: Ballantine Books.
  31. Eisenhardt, K. (1989). Agency theory: An assessment and review. Academy of management review, 14.1 (1989): 57-74.
  32. Eisenhardt, K. (1989). Building theories from case study research. Academy of management review , 14.4 (1989): 532-550.
  33. EPA. (2016). Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions Data. Retrieved 2016, from EPA:
  34. Farman, J. (1985). Large losses of total ozone in Antarctica reveal seasonal ClOx/NOx interaction. Nature, 315.207-210.
  35. Fisk, D. (1934). Exploring the upperatmosphere. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  36. Fomerand, J. (2009). The A to Z of the United Nations. Scarecrow Press.
  37. Gardner, S. (2014). LA Smog: the battle against air pollution. Retrieved 2016, from Marketplace:
  38. Gillett, N. (2013). Constraining the ratio of global warming to cumulative CO2 emissions using CMIP5 simulations. Journal of Climate, 26.18 (2013): 6844-6858.
  39. Gleisner, H. (2011). Latitudinal Binning and Area-Weighted Averaging. GRAS SAF Report 10: Danish Meteorological Institute.
  40. Goldberg, E. (1979). Pollution history of the Savannah River estuary. Environmental Science & Technology, 13.5 (1979): 588-594.
  41. Gordon, J. (2009). Claudia Rossett: The UN Is Absolutely Corrupt. Retrieved 2016, from New English Review:
  42. Gorodnichenko, Y. (2007). Public sector pay and corruption: Measuring bribery from micro data. Journal of Public economics, 91.5 (2007): 963-991.
  43. Goswami, U. (2914). IPCC report warns governments on failure to check climate change. Retrieved 2016, from The Economic Times:
  44. GPO. (2012). Budget of the US Government. Retrieved 2016, from
  45. Haagen-Smit, A. (1952). Chemistry and physiology of Los Angeles smog . Industrial & Engineering Chemistry, 44.6 (1952): 1342-1346.
  46. Hallegatte, S. (2009). Strategies to adapt to an uncertain climate change. Global Environmental Change, 19.2 (2009): 240-247.
  47. Halper, S. (1996). A Miasma of Corruption: The United Nations at 50. The Cato Institute Policy Analysis #253.
  48. Hansen, J. (1981). Impact of Increasing Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide. Science, 213: 957-66.
  49. Hansen, J. (1988). 1988 Hansen Senate Testimony. Retrieved 2016, from
  50. Hansen, J. (2016). Ice melt, sea level rise and superstorms:. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3761–3812, 2016.
  51. Hanst, P. (1967). A long-path infra-red study of Los Angeles smog. Atmospheric Environment, 16.5 (1982): 969-981.
  52. IAC. (2011). Review of the IPCC. Retrieved 2016, from Inter Academy Council:
  53. IPCC. (2007). AR4 WG1 Chapter 7: Couplings between changes in the climate system and biogeochemistry. Geneva: IPCC.
  54. IPCC. (2014). Climate Change 2013 The Physical Science Basis. Geneva: IPCC/UNEP.
  56. IPCC. (2016). Organization. Retrieved 2016, from IPCC:
  57. Jamieson, D. (2014). Reason in a Dark Time: Why the Struggle Against Climate Change Failed — and What It Means for Our Future. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  58. Jensen, M. (1976). Theory of the firm: Managerial behavior, agency costs and ownership structure. Journal of financial economics , 3.4 (1976): 305-360.
  59. JOHNSON, B. (2010). Pachauri Debunks Myth Of IPCC As Money-Hungry Bureaucracy. Retrieved 2016, from Climate Progress:
  60. Johnson, V. (2013). Revised standards for statistical evidence. Retrieved 2015, from Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences:
  61. Jones, A. (2011). The UN is hopelessly corrupt. Retrieved from
  62. Karl, T. (2015). Possible artifacts of data biases in the recent global surface warming hiatus. Science, 348:6242 pp 1469-1472.
  63. Kozubek, M. (2012). Change of Brewer-Dobson circulation and its impact on total ozone in the middle and high latitude. Retrieved 2016, from Researchgate:
  64. Lacis, A. (2010). Principal Control Knob Governing Earth’s Temperature. Science, 330.
  65. Laframboise, D. (2011). The Delinquent Teenager Who Was Mistaken for the World’s Top Climate Expert. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.
  66. Laframboise, D. (2016). No Frakking Consensus. Retrieved 2016, from nofrakkingconsensus:
  67. Litfin, K. (1994). Ozone discourses: science and politics in global environmental cooperation. NY: Columbia University Press.
  68. Longenecker, C. (1996). Public sector performance appraisal effectiveness: A case study. Public Personnel Management, 25.2 (1996): 151-164.
  69. Lovelock, J. (1972). Gaia as seen through the atmosphere. Atmospheric Environment , 6 (8): 579–580.
  70. Lovelock, J. (1977). Halogenated hydrocarbons in the atmosphere. Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, 1.3 (1977): 399-406.
  71. Lynch, C. (2006, May 2). UN Defends Choice For Environment Job. Washington Post.
  72. Mail Online. (2014). DANIEL HANNAN: Corrupt and incompetent, the UN has no right to lecture us. Retrieved 2016, from Mail Online:
  73. Manne, R. (2013). Climate change: some reasons for our failures. Retrieved 2016, from The Guardian:
  74. Marris, E. (2011). In retrospect: The Lorax. Nature, 476 (7359) 148-149.
    Matthews, C. (2015). United Nations Diplomat Corruption Case Presents Challenges. Retrieved 2016, from The Wall Street Journal:
  75. Matthews, H. (2009). The proportionality of global warming to cumulative carbon emissions. Nature, 459.7248 (2009): 829-832.
  76. (2012). Short Biography. Retrieved 2016, from
  78. McIntyre, S. (2007). Cunning IPCC Bureaucrats. Retrieved 2016, from Climate Audit:
  79. McSweeny, R. (2015). Analysis: which countries have sent the most delegates to COP21? Retrieved 2016, from Carbon Brief:
  80. Meese, E. (2007). The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea: The Risks Outweigh the Benefits. The Heritage Foundation.
  81. Mendez, R. (1995, Fall issue). Paying for peace and development. Foreign Policy 100, pp. 19-31.
  82. Molina, M. (1974). Stratospheric sink for chlorofluoromethanes: chlorine atom-catalysed destruction of ozone. Nature, 249.28 (1974): 810-812.
  83. Morano, M. (2013). UN IPCC Report Exposed By Its Own Members as a pure political process. Retrieved 2016, from Climate Depot:
  84. Morrisette, P. (1989). Evolution of Policy Responses to Stratospheric Ozone Depletion. Natural Resources Journal, 29 (1989): 793.
  85. Munshi, J. (1990). MIS cases in action. New York: McGraw Hill.
  86. Munshi, J. (2000). Corruption in the Banking Industry in Bangladesh. Transparency Internationa;.
  87. Munshi, J. (2015). Decadal Fossil Fuel Emissions and Decadal Warming. Retrieved 2016, from
  88. Munshi, J. (2015). Fossil Fuel Emissions and Ocean Acidification. Retrieved 2016, from
  89. Munshi, J. (2015). Responsiveness of Atmospheric CO2 to Anthropogenic Emissions. Retrieved 2016, from
  90. Munshi, J. (2015). Uncertain Flow Accounting and the IPCC Carbon Budget. Retrieved 2016, from
  91. Munshi, J. (2016). An Empirical Test of the Chemical Theory of Ozone Depletion. Retrieved 2016, from
  92. Munshi, J. (2016). Changes in the 13C/12C Ratio of Atmospheric CO2. Retrieved 2016, from
  93. Munshi, J. (2016). Dilution of Atmospheric Radiocarbon CO2 by Fossil Fuel Emissions. Retrieved 2016, from
  94. Munshi, J. (2016). Latitudinally Weighted Mean Global Ozone. Retrieved 2016, from
  95. Munshi, J. (2016). Mean Global Total Ozone from Ground Station Data. Retrieved 2016, from
  96. Munshi, J. (2016). The Spuriousness of Correlations between Cumulative Values. Retrieved 2016, from
  97. Munshi, J. (2016). UN-paper-data-archive. Retrieved 2016, from Google Drive:
  98. Murray, J. (2002). Who Will Police the Peace-Builders-The Failure to Establish Accountability for the Participation of United Nations Civilian Police in the Trafficking of Women in Post-Conflict Bosnia and Herzegovina. Colum. Hum. Rts. L. Rev, 34 (2002).
  99. NAS. (1977). Energy and Climate: Studies in Geophysics. National Academies Press.
  100. NASA-GISS. (2016). GLOBAL MEAN CO2. Retrieved 2016, from DATA.GISS.NASA.GOV:
  101. Nieves, V. (2015). Recent hiatus caused by decadal shift in Indo-Pacific heating. Science, Vol. 349 no.6247 pp. 532-535.
  102. NOAA. (2010). Has the Montreal Protocol been successful in reducing Q16 ozone-depleting substances in the atmosphere? Retrieved 2016, from CONTROLLING OZONE-DEPLETING SUBSTANCES:
  103. Oates, W. (1985). The American Economic Review , 75.4 (1985): 748-757.
  104. Pachauri, R. (2010). Don’t hound the climate scientists. Retrieved 2016, from The Guardian:
  105. Parry, W. (2011). Climate Success Story: Saving the Ozone Layer. Retrieved 2016, from Live Science:
  106. Pauwelyn, J. (2003). A Typology of Multilateral Treaty Obligations: Are WTO Obligations Bilateral or Collective in Nature? European Journal of International Law, 14.5 (2003): 907-951.
  107. PBL. (2010). PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency. Retrieved 2016, from PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency:
  108. Prodobnik, B. (2008). Detrended cross correlation analysis. Physical Review Letters, 100: 084102.
  109. Rabbe, A. (1992). and S.H.H. Larsen,Ozone Variations in the Northern Hemisphere Due to Dynamic Processes in the Atmosphere. Journal of Atmospberic and Terrestrial Physics, , Vol. 54, pp. 11071112.
  110. Rasool, S. (1971). Atmospheric carbon dioxide and aerosols: Effects of large increases on global climate. Science, 173, 138-141, doi:10.1126/science.173.3992.138.
  111. Real Climate. (2010). IPCC errors: facts and spin. Retrieved 2016, from Real Climate:
  112. Revelle, R. (1956). Carbon dioxide exchange between atmosphere and ocean and the question of an increase in atmospheric CO2 during the past decades. UC La Jolla, CA: Scripps Institution of Oceanography.
  113. Ricke, K. (2014). Maximum warming occurs about one decade after a carbon dioxide emission. Environmental Research Letters, 9.12 (2014): 124002.
  114. Roe, G. (2007). Why is climate sensitivity so unpredictable? Science , 318.5850 (2007): 629-632.
  115. Roe, G. (2011). How sensitive is climate sensitivity? Geophysical Research Letters, 38.14 (2011).
  116. Rome, A. (2003). Give Earth a Chance”: The Environmental Movement and the Sixties. The Journal of American History, 90.2 (2003): 525-554.
  117. Romzek, B. (1987). Accountability in the public sector: Lessons from the Challenger tragedy. Public Administration Review, (1987): 227-238.
  118. Rose-Ackerman, S. (2008). Corruption. Springer US.
    Rossett, C. (2006). How corrupt is the United Nations? Retrieved 2016, from
  119. Commentary Magazine:
  120. Rossett, C. (2008, Oct 11). Maurice Strong: the UN’s man of mystery. Wall Street Journal, p.
  121. Rowlands, I. (1993). The fourth meeting of the parties to the Montreal protocol: report and reflection. Environment Science and Policy for Sustainable Development , 35.6 (1993): 25-34.
  122. Ruckelshaus, W. (1984). Environmental Protection: A Brief History of the Environmental Movement in America and the Implications Abroad. Environmental Letters, 15 (1984): 455.
  123. Sanjuan, P. (2005). The UN Gang: A Memoir of Incompetence, Corruption, Espionage, Anti-Semitism and Islamic Extremism at the UN Secretariat. Doubleday.
  124. Schaefer, B. D. (2012). The History of the Bloated U.N. Budget. Retrieved 2016, from hERITAGE.ORG:
  125. Shabecoff, P. (1988). Global warming has begun, expert tells Senate. New York Times, p. 24.1988 (1988): A1.
    Solomon, S. (2009). Irreversible climate change due to carbon dioxide emissions. Proceedings of the national academy of sciences, 0812721106.
  126. Stolarski, R. (1974). Stratospheric chlorine: a possible sink for ozone. Canadian journal of Chemistry, 52.8 (1974): 1610-1615.
  127. Tegtmeier, S. (2008). Relative importance of dynamical and chemical contributions to Arctic wintertime ozone. Geophysical Research Letters, 35: L17801.
  128. Tevini, M. (1989). UV-B effects on terrestrial plants. Photochemstry and Photobiology, 50. 479-87.
    The American Interest. (2016). Corruption Scandal at the UN. Retrieved 2016, from The American Interest:
    The Economist. (2005). Corruption at the heart of the United Nations. Retrieved 2016, from
    The Heartland Institute. (2014). About the IPCC. Retrieved 2016, from NIPCC:
  129. The Scientific Alliance. (2010). The failure of climate change mitigation policy. Retrieved 2016, from The Scientific Alliance:
  130. Trading Econnomics. (2016). Swiss Francs. Retrieved 2016, from Trading Economics:
  131. UNEP. (2004). Small Island Developing States. Retrieved 2016, from UNEP:
  132. UNEP. (2007). A Success in the making. Retrieved 2016, from Ozone.Unep.Org:
  133. UNEP. (2015). UNEP. Retrieved 2016, from Annual Report:
  134. UNEP. (2016). Stockholm 1972. Retrieved 2016, from UNEP:
  135. UNFCCC. (1993). The Second World Climate Conference. Retrieved 2016, from
  136. UNFCCC:
  137. UNFCCC. (2014). Parties an Observers. Retrieved 2016, from UNFCCC:
  139. VanDyke, D. (2010). The CFC Ban: Global Warming’s Pilot Episode. Retrieved 2016, from American Thinker:
  140. Ward, B. (1972). Only One Earth: The Care and Maintenance of a Small Planet. Norton.
  141. Wren, C. (1995, June 23). Mismanagement and waste erode UN’s best intentions. New York Times, p. A1.
  142. Zaruk, D. (2010). Eight reasons why the IPCC head, Pachauri, must be fired. Retrieved 2016, from Risk-Monger:
  143. Zaruk, D. (2013). How the EEA is trying to disguise environmental activism as science. Retrieved 2016, from Risk-Monger:
  144. Zaruk, D. (2014). UNEP: Corrupt, conflicted and woefully incompetent. Shut it down. Retrieved 2016, from The Risk-Monger:
  145. Zawahri, N. (2011). Fragmented Governance of International Rivers: Negotiating Bilateral versus Multilateral Treaties. International Studies Quarterly , 55.3 (2011): 835-858.
  146. Zelko, F. (2013). Make it a green peace!: The rise of countercultural environmentalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  147. Zickfeld, K. (2009). Setting cumulative emissions targets to reduce the risk of dangerous climate change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106.38 (2009): 16129-16134.
  148. Ziemke, J. (1998). Two new methods for deriving tropospheric column ozone from TOMS measurements: Assimilated UARS MLS/HALOE and convective‐cloud differential techniques. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres , 103.D17 (1998): 22115-22127.
















[…] Having tasted the great success in the ozone depletion scare with the Montreal Protocol of 1987, and having seen the power of debilitating fear, the UNEP was now poised to take charge of the climate change issue as described by Hansen in his Congressional testimony of 1988 and related research papers.  describing it broadly as a global environmental crisis that can be addressed only at the global level and therefore only by the United Nations. The role of the United Nations in the extension of the AGW issue is described in a related post  [LINK] . […]

[…] Having tasted great success in the ozone depletion scare with the Montreal Protocol of 1987, and having seen the power of debilitating fear, the UNEP was now poised to take charge of the AGW issue as it had been described by Hansen in his Congressional testimony of 1988 and related research papers.  Describing it broadly as a global environmental crisis that can be addressed only at the global level and therefore only by the United Nations, the role of the United Nations in the extension of its ozone success of the AGW issue is thus established [LINK]. […]

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: